The Future

The rapid increase in the use of multiphoton lasers, which are probably now in use in 50 laboratories, guarantees that the present steady expansion of applications will continue.

New dyes with enhanced multiphoton effects will undoubtedly emerge (see Cheng et al., 1998), perhaps from existing military work on eye protection.

It is hoped that microscope designers will aid multiphoton development by adapting the microscope body for more efficient nonfocus-ing detection. For this form of detection, it would also be worth designing special objectives optimized for high N.A., flat field, and high transmission, but without any need for chromatic correction.

Brakenhoff et al. (1995b) were the first to successfully implement two-photon, videorate scanning in a slit-scanning microscope. They showed that a pulse laser with a much lower repetition rate than those now used (ide

Image Cytometry Instrumentation

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