101 Toxic Food Ingredients
Another class of complex carbohydrates which has been an important topic at this workshop are physiologically functional food additives such as inulin and oligosaccharide-based products. These materials are increasingly being used as fat substitutes, and for their beneficial health effects which are similar to those of dietary fiber, i.e. they are not digestible by human digestive juices, and cause an increase in the bifidobacteria population in the colon which in turn suppresses
Food additives have been used since prehistoric times to maintain and improve the quality of food products. Smoke, alcohol, vinegar, oils, and spices have been used for more than 10,000 years to preserve foods. These and a small number of other chemicals, such as salts, copper, and chalk, were the major food additives used until the time of the Industrial Revolution. Since then many changes in food manufacturing and food distribution have taken place as a result of urbanization, the decrease in opportunity for individual families to grow their own food, and the increase in the consumer's demand for a broader food assortment and a higher quality of food. Also, food had to be produced on a larger scale. Distribution over long distances involves a longer span of time between production and consumption. Further, food needs to be stored in warehouses and shops, and also at home. In addition, convenience foods require extensive preservation. Processed food is more perishable than the...
To preserve quality and to prevent loss of nutritional value, the addition of antioxidants to food containing fatty acids has a long tradition. Two well-known antioxidant food additives are butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (see Figure 18.2). Although highly lipophilic, BHA and BHT do not accumulate in mammals. The reason for this is the efficient elimination of these chemicals from the body. In the case of BHA and BHT, the discussion on setting the dietary standards has focused on the question whether or not these food additives have to be considered as non-genotoxic carcinogens, and consequently, on whether or not safe human exposure levels for these substances can be established.
Flavor has a profound influence on the consumption of food. It imparts that quality to products by which they distinguish themselves. Flavoring agents make up the largest number of food additives. There are three types of flavoring additives flavorings, flavor enhancers, and (non-nutritive) sweeteners. More than 1500 substances are used as food flavorings. The majority are of natural origin or are nature-identical, and do not give rise to concern from a safety point of view. Only a few synthetic substances have been approved as food flavoring. Examples are ethylvanillin, ethylmaltol, and anisylacetone. Flavor enhancers intensify or modify the flavor of food. They have no taste of their own. They include substances such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and various nucleotides. These substances are present in Japanese seaweed (traditionally used for seasoning), mushrooms, tomatoes, peas, meat, and cheese. They are often used in soups, sauces and oriental food. No known adverse effects of...
Since substances of natural origin are not always harmless and the toxicological risks associated with the use of man-made products such as additives have been estimated to be minimal, the four categories of food components are discussed in the following order natural toxins (including microbial toxins, Chapter 2) and naturally occurring antinutritives (Chapter 3), contaminants (Chapter 4), food additives and the rationale for their use (Chapter 5), and nutrients (Chapter 6). The latter are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of processing on their nature and contents.
Halliwell, (Eds.), Free radicals and food additives. London, Taylor and Francis, 1991. Belitz, H.-D. and W. Grosch, (Eds.), Food Chemistry. Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1987. Birch, G.G., (Ed.), Food for the 90's. Amsterdam, Elsevier Applied Sciences, 1990. Branen, A.L., P.M. Davidson and S. Salminen, (Eds.), Food Additives. New York, Marcel Dekker Inc., 1990.
Before a chemical is admitted as a food additive, extensive toxicological research is required. The results are often the basis for assessing the recommended limit values, such as ADIs, usually applying a safety factor of 100. The levels of additives in food are usually much lower than the ADIs. Therefore, food additives are relatively safe.
Testing of plant substances for toxicity is not provided for by official food safety regulation. Isolation and purification of amounts needed for toxicity testing are expensive. In general, industry has no interest in giving such studies financial support. Flavors of plant origin are an exception. Many of these are used in the production of food additives. As such, they come under the regulation of additives. The toxicity of some plant flavors has been examined by modern methods. Important additional information comes from experiences acquired with farm animals. These animals very often ingest one edible plant species or relatively simple and homogeneous feed mixtures over long periods of time, which may be comparable to chronic toxicity testing in experimental animals.
126.96.36.199 Additives and processing residues According to the general public, the toxicological risks associated with the intake of food additives and food processing residues are high. In particular, sweeteners, antioxidants, dyes, and preservatives are substances that have recently received large negative publicity.
The examples discussed in the preceding subsections serve two purposes. The first aim was to give an impression of the toxicological risks associated with food intake by the population. As shown in Tables 16.1 and 16.2, the perception of the toxicological risks from different food components differ between the public and the experts. The examples discussed show that in reality the highest risks do not originate from food additives and contaminants, as perceived by the public, but from nutritional imbalance and microbiological contamination. In fact, the risks due to additives are minimal. The difference in ranking between consumers and scientists is a cause for concern, especially as risk prevention and control is also partly the responsibility of the consumer.
To ensure a safe food supply it is first necessary to identify the hazards associated with the chemicals naturally present in food, i.e., the nutrients and any toxins of natural origin, and those chemicals added to food, either by accident (contaminants) or intentionally (food additives).
The technial necessity of new food additives must be established to ensure that consumers are not exposed unnecessarily to the additional risk of a new chemical if it is of no particular benefit. Many people question the need for the many types of food additives presently available, but in practice, these additives are needed to ensure the availability of a range of attractive food products with a long shelf life. One only needs to look at the range of food products available in the supermarkets and consider how few would be possible without the use of some additives.
The World Health Organization (WHO) in combination with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) through their Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has also developed guidelines to improve the quality and general acceptability of food safety testing. Other organizations, including the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) as the expert body within the European Union, EU, have also produced guideline protocols based on those of the OECD. Many individual countries have developed their own guidelines which may differ slightly from those of the OECD. Fortunately, most of these differences are disappearing as harmonization in standards increases, stimulated by the activities of the OECD, EU, and WHO.
Toxins of natural origin and contaminants are undesirable components which serve no nutritional or technical function (as do food additives) in the marketed food product. They constitute a large and diverse group of chemicals which man may consume in sizeable amounts. It is therefore essential that the toxicological profiles of the major natural toxins and contaminants are known so that their presence in food can be limited. The setting of acceptable intakes is based on an understanding of the toxicological profile of the component in question in a way similar to that described for food additives. In the case of contaminants, the term acceptable daily intake is changed to tolerable daily intake (TDI) to reflect the levels permissible in food to maintain a safe and varied supply (see also Section 188.8.131.52 and Section 184.108.40.206).
Contaminants are often more toxic than additives. In the ideal situation, all toxic contaminants should be removed from food, but often the factors leading to their presence are difficult or impossible to control. Therefore, the unavoidable intake of contaminants should be limited to safe levels. As for food additives, limits for the presence of contaminants in food will need to be based on a no-effect level from an appropriate toxicity study. The safety factor applied to calculate the TDI of contaminants is frequently greater than the 100fold factor used for additives.
The guideline protocols and the safety factors employed for risk assessment are based on the assumption that new additives and ingredients will be used at levels well below 1 in the food. This assumption is not applicable to many of the current developments in food technology. The pace of development of new food additives has declined, but future developments will come from the area of biotechnology and the use of novel macro-components in the diet. The methods of genetic engineering are increasingly used to develop novel food sources with desirable characteristics. In addition, following the recognition of the need to modify the balance of macronutrient intakes to achieve a more desirable diet, materials such as fat replacers are actively developed.
The European Community was founded as a free-trade association for its member countries. One of the objectives was to achieve harmonization in setting food standards. Since January 1992, however, all member countries have to accept the products produced in other member countries without any restriction, and have to apply identical criteria for quality and safety. In practice, this means that member countries cannot approve a marketing authorization for substances used in the production of foods without the agreement of the European Community. The safety evaluation of food additives or substances present in a food as a result of their use in its production process, is formally carried out by the Commission of the European Communities. Within the Commission, several scientific working groups are involved in food safety evaluation (see Figure 19.3). Proposals made by these working groups for the safe use of food additives and for maximum residue limits are, if adopted by Regulatory...
Risk assessment is the tool used to evaluate the safety of food and food additives. As noted by the Joint FAO WHO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the World Health Organization) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) safety evaluation of food additives is a two-stage process. In the first stage relevant data are collected, including results of studies on experimental animals and, where possible, human observations, including epidemiology studies. In the second stage data are assessed to determine whether a substance is acceptable for its intended use as a food additive. This scientific process determines the possible adverse effects in humans resulting from exposure to a substance.
Observations in experimental animals or exposed people. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) (also called the tolerable daily intake, or TDI, see also Chapters 16 and 17) is estimated by dividing the NOAEL by a safety or uncertainty factor. Scientific guidelines and recommendations on the development and use of ADIs have been adopted by the Joint FAO WHO Food Standards Program (Codex Alimentarius Committee on Food Additives), the FAO Committee on Pesticide Residues, and the WHO Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues. If the maximum daily intake of a non-carcinogenic substance is estimated to be lower than the ADI, then no risk is assumed for almost all members of the general population. Critical to this estimate, however, is the magnitude of the safety or uncertainty factor, which can range from 10 to 10,000 based on the data and on the policy of different regulatory organizations. For example, for non-nutrient substances, the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the US Food...
The World Health Organization is an international advisory body with the overall aim of protecting human health. As far as toxicological risk assessment is concerned, it is not a legislative body. It backs national authorities in setting standards for the protection of human health. The International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS) plays a guiding role in the international procedure of evaluating risks from chemicals and setting tolerances for residues of chemicals in food. Through the IPCS, the WHO participates in two joint committees of the WHO and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). The Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) serve as scientific advisory bodies of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, a joint FAO WHO commission that sets standards for chemicals in food. The Codex Alimentarius Commission is responsible for the implementation of the Joint FAO WHO Food Standards Program, that is intended to...
Consumers, when asked to indicate major health risks associated with food consumption, usually put food additives and contaminants first. They are prone to consider high fat consumption and other undesirable eating habits, or inadequate hygienic conditions when handling food in the kitchen, of lower importance. - (particularly in affluent societies,) consumers depend more and more on diets based on products that are readily available almost year-round. This requires the application of an immense number of interventions, processes, techniques, processing aids, and food additives, all of which may, alone or in combination, have effects on the safety of such foodstuffs. For example, the nitrate contents of greenhouse-cultivated vegetables may be twice or three times as high as that of summer-harvested crops, and even exceed the safety limits
The number of naturally occurring non-nutritive chemicals in foods is unknown, but is probably larger than 500,000. Only a small portion has been identified chemically and only a few have been submitted to adequate toxicological examination. In contrast, synthetic pesticides, food additives, and industrial contaminants have been subjected to extensive toxicological screening. This has led the public to believe that man-made chemicals are potentially more hazardous to humans than natural chemicals.
Food additives are chemicals that are intentionally added to foods or their raw materials to preserve or improve the quality of the product. The increasing demand for food by an ever-increasing world population, as well as by changes in lifestyles in developed societies, has led to the use of additives to preserve foods or to process raw foods into nutritionally adequate ready-to-eat foods. Examples of types of additives are preservatives, antioxidants, colorings and color-preserving substances, flavorings, thickening and emulsifying agents, stabilizers, bleaching agents, moisture repellants, and defoaming agents. In the Netherlands, for example, the admittance of additives is regulated in the Commodities Act. Regulation under this act has taken the form of a so-called positive list. This list contains all chemicals that have been approved as food additives. It also incorporates detailed specifications concerning identity and purity of the substance, the purpose of using it, and its...
Guidelines drawn up by the Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and the Scientific Committee for Food of the European Union provide a general outline for the toxicity testing of food components. The guidelines of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for toxicity testing of chemicals give more details of the design of studies, the way in which studies should be carried out, and the parameters to be used. However, it is evident that the end points specified in the OECD guidelines are not always appropriate for providing relevant toxicity data on a food component, particularly in the case of macroingredients such as bulk sweeteners, fat substitutes, modified starches, and novel food products. Some experienced food toxi-cologists believe that the traditional (guideline) approach to toxicity testing has not only impeded the development of toxicology as a science, but has priced itself out of the market as far as food chemicals are concerned. Others...
This substance is a typical member of a series of propenylbenzenes. These also include methyleugenol and estragole. The propenylbenzenes are natural and synthetic flavoring agents. Sassafras, containing high levels of safrole, used to be added to sarsaparilla root beer. Nowadays, safrole is still present in the diet as a (minor) component of various herbs and spices, e.g., cloves.
It is the aim of safety evaluation to identify the type of adverse effect and to establish and quantify the dose-response relationships over certain periods of time. Therefore, adequate toxicological data are essential to determine the level at which human exposure to a substance can be considered as safe. For food additives, it was decided a long time ago by the Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) that an acceptable daily intake (ADI) should be established that would provide an adequate margin of safety to reduce to a minimum any hazard to health in all groups of consumers. Thus, the ADI was defined as an estimate of the amount of a substance in food, expressed on the basis of body weight, that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk. Guide values or standards based on this ADI should minimize the probability of the occurrence of adverse effects in man, if exposed to a particular substance. Crucial in this approach is the...
This implies that epidemiological studies on health risk from food components will become increasingly difficult since there is a tendency towards buying mass-produced foods from supermarkets. In addition, increasing mobility eliminates the effects of differences in local environment. Health effects of certain food contaminants can only be studied if populations distinctly differ in exposure. Examples of such natural experiments concern populations living in areas where the water or soil is contaminated with nitrate, arsenic, or cadmium, resulting in a relatively high intake of these contaminants with food or drinking water. In epidemiological research one can compare the incidence of a particular disease in a certain area with national statistics or with the incidence in uncontaminated regions. Comparing people who use artificial sweeteners or drink coffee with people who do not, is another example of studying distinct differences in exposure. If the exposure conditions differ little...
Several scientists have proposed the introduction of so-called safety scales as a solution for the relatively poor comprehension people have of the concept of probability. A safety scale, as proposed by Urquhart and Heilman (1984) shows how safe or unsafe a certain activity is on a 1 to 8 scale the higher the score, the safer the activity. For example, smoking cigarettes (a packet a day) scores 2.3, flying is 5.9. Numbers are assigned to activities by logarithmic transformation of statistical data. When, for example, a certain activity takes the life of 1 person a year per 100 people who carry out the activity, the score on the safety scale is 2. Urquhart, however, is of the opinion that it is not necessary for people to know how the score on the scale is calculated. He argues that people also have an idea of what an earthquake of five on the Richter scale means without knowing the background to measurement and calculation. Although such a scale might give the public more insight into...
By analogy, living bacteria that are added to food (e.g., in yogurt) which cross the upper gastrointestinal tract to colonize the caeco-colon have been called probiotics. We propose to call them prebiotics with NDO used as food ingredients to modify the composition of endogenous gut microflora (24).
Canned foods can be stored for up to 2 years in a cool, dry place. It's a good idea to keep a stock of food staples, such as canned and frozen vegetables and fruits, rice, and pasta, along with seasonings and condiments, so you can put together a quick meal in a hurry. For example, heating up a can of black beans mixed with a can of diced and seasoned tomatoes and a chopped onion, served over rice, can be an easy and nutritious meal to make after a long day at work. Safe food handling is essential to prevent food contamination and food poisoning. Always wash your hands thoroughly before you start preparing food. It is very easy to contaminate foods in your kitchen with other foods, such as raw meat, poultry, or eggs, that can have high bacterial counts. In particular, uncooked or undercooked poultry is a leading source of bacterial contamination. Always wash any knives, cutting boards, and countertops that have come into contact with raw poultry, meat, or eggs using hot, soapy water,...
The World Health Organization has estimated that at least 100000 different chemicals are on the market, most of them with unknown immunotoxic potential. The complex nature of the immune system as sketched above allows for two very different mechanisms how low-molecular-weight chemicals such as drugs, food additives, metal salts, naturally occurring chemicals, or any of the many chemicals used in industry, agriculture, or household products can become immunotoxic (Figure 2). Chemicals or their metabolites can exert toxic effects on the immune system as the target organ. Any cell type can be affected, granulocytes, stem cells, natural killer cells, lymphocytes, etc. From the point of view of an immunologist, this type of immunotoxicity is nonspecific because it is not mediated by the specific antigen receptors on B or T lymphocytes. This type of immunotoxic effect will not lead to memory to the chemical in an immunological sense. Immunotoxic effects of this type usually cause...
Polydextrose is an approved food additive in forty-six countries around the world, and is commercially accepted and sold in two others without requirement of formal approval. Both the Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the European Commission Scientific Committee for Foods (EC SCF) have reviewed the safety of polydextrose and given it an ADI ''not specified,'' meaning they have no concerns about daily intake levels. The 1 kcal g energy content of polydextrose is generally accepted for labeling purposes in all countries where it is approved.
Proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors (present for example in legumes, eggs, and plasma) are separated and detected in complex mixtures by using a variation of the technique described in Basic Protocol 3. This technique is useful when studying the presence, diversity, amount, and specificity of proteinase inhibitors in food ingredients that affect protein digestion. An example of detection of proteinase inhibitors is given in Figure B3.1.4.
Cumin was valued in Europe for its medicinal properties and as a spice. It was one of the thirty-six ingredients of the antidote to poisoning prepared by the physician Crateuas for Mithridates the Great in about 80 bc. This reputedly prevented Mithridates from poisoning himself to avoid capture by Pompey. In about ad 65, Dioscorides listed cumin among the fragrant herbs used in compound ointments. Greek influence on the Roman Empire is thought to have led to increased demand for luxuries such as spices. Cato the Censor (234-149 bc) included in his De Agri Cultura a recipe for a sweet wine cake flavored with cumin and aniseed. Cumin also figured in the recipes of Apicius the epicure. It was grown in bulk in Egypt for the markets of Imperial Rome. Pliny regarded cumin as the best appetizer of all the condiments, and it was among the products whose maximum price was fixed by Diocletian's edict of ad 301.
Mustards have been used as vegetables, oilseeds, condiments, and medicines. White mustard (Sinapis alba) probably originated in the eastern Mediterranean region, black mustard (Brassica nigra) in the Middle East, brown mustard (B. juncea) in central Asia, and Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata) in northeast Africa. For table mustard, white mustard is combined with a more pungent species, previously black mustard but now brown mustard, mainly because B. juncea can be harvested mechanically whereas the dehiscent fruits of B. nigra must be hard-harvested. The mustard gas used in the First World War was based on the chemical structure of the pungent glycoside of black mustard.
The female flowers of the hop plant are the most widely used flavoring agent in beer, in which it is important both for the bitter resins that balance the sweet taste of malt, and for the essential oils that enhance the aroma. number of alpha and beta acids, including humulone and lupulone. The essential oils contribute to the aroma of the beer. Hops also have antimicrobial, preservative qualities, and the better traveling and keeping qualities of hopped beer were an important factor in its displacement of sweet gale as a flavoring agent.
The thaumatins are a class of intensely sweet proteins (1,600 times as sweet as sucrose) isolated from the aril of the fruit of the tropical west African species Thaumatococcus daniellii. Thaumatin is approved for use in many countries, and it serves both as a flavor enhancer and a high-intensity sweetener. The supply of naturally occurring thaumatin is limited, which has prompted extensive research into its synthesis via transgenic organisms. The gene encoding thaumatin has been introduced into various microorganisms. The unique properties of thaumatin as a food additive could well be exploited by the food and beverage industry. Or, we might yet see the thaumatin gene engineered directly into fruit and vegetable crops to improve their flavor and sweetness.
Proteinases in complex protein samples are separated and detected by their activity using a technique called substrate-SDS-PAGE. After electrophoresis, the gel is incubated in a casein substrate solution and then stained with Coomassie brilliant blue. The presence of active proteinase is indicated by clear zones on a blue background. Information about the number of active components and their molecular weights is obtained by this technique. This method is useful when studying the presence, diversity, amount, and class of proteinases in food ingredients that affect properties such as texture. Other measurements of proteinase activity are addressed in unit C2.1. Figure B3.1.2 shows a discontinuous polyacrylamide gel activity stained for proteinase.
Liqueurs and cordials differ from brandies in that sugar or syrup or both added to the distilled liquid. Liqueurs also contain characteristic flavors. The flavorings used include leaves, roots, herbs, fruits, and barks. Chartreuse, a fine liqueur that has been made since 1605 by Carthusian monks in France and Spain, is rumored to contain 130 different flavoring agents.
For plant compounds one can consider several possibilities of biotechnological production plant cell tissue cultures, transgenic plants or plant cells, transgenic microorganisms and isolated enzymes. For transgenic systems it is necessary to know the pathway of production involved and have the genes available. Isolated enzymes can be used only for bioconversions, that is going from a precursor to the next product. One application of PCTC is to provide an alternative method for producing food ingredients and medi-cinals that have traditionally been extracted from field-grown plants. As more is known about the biochemical and genetic regulation of plant secondary metabolism, and more advances are made in the development of yield improvement strategies and design of large-scale bioreactors, commercial application of PCTC-derived molecules is expected to increase. Therefore plant cell tissue culture seems the most interesting alternative to plant metabolite industrial production, provided...
TREATMENT The key to treatment is to determine the underlying cause since urticaria is always present secondary to an underling immunologic process. Elimination of the inciting factor is curative. Allergy testing may be useful for recurrent cases. In acute urticaria, an etiology is found 20 to 30 of the time and most commonly includes drugs, food or food additives, intravenous radio-opaque contrast medium, hymenoptera stings, infections, or systemic inflammatory diseases. Marked emotional tension may precipitate or exacerbate the condition. Cold, pressure, and sunlight may trigger urticaria in rare familial or sporadic cases. Often, however, the cause cannot be determined. Cold compresses often give relief. Use of subcutaneous epinephrine injection may be necessary for hypotension or airway involvement. In chronic cases the etiology is found in less than 5 of cases.
Today, well over one hundred years since Kirchhof, Le Duc, and Jones performed their experiments, corn syrup may not have totally replaced imported cane sugar nonetheless, if you look on any food label (and on some non-food labels) at your local supermarket, you will notice that corn syrup, if not the first ingredient, is a close second or third. Today, Le Duc's predictions would not be considered too far off the mark. Corn has come a long way from an indigenous plant and has become a primary source of human and animal nutrition, sugar, and non-edible products, all of which are made and used throughout the world.
It is known that selenium intake and plasma selenium levels decline in infants fed selenium-poor milk formula before meat-derived food additives are fed as 'beikost' compared to breastfed babies. Nevertheless, selenium supplementation appears not indicated in premature babies provided adequate nutrition is achieved. However, during pregnancy and the postpartum period the maternal plasma selenium status is decreasing because of considerable transfer of the trace element to the growing fetus via the placenta (1-4 xg of selenium per day) and via breast milk (3-6 xg of selenium per day) to the feeding baby in addition to enhanced maternal urinary losses. Therefore, adequate supplementation of both trace elements to the pregnant and lactating mother is indicated in areas of limited or inadequate supply of selenium and or iodine. Selenium supplementation in children with congenital hypothyroidism on T4 treatment did not affect serum thyroid hormone concentrations or the impaired T3 T4 ratio...
This perfumed molecule is used as a fragrance in perfumes, a flavoring agent in soft drinks, ice creams, dentifrices, pastries, chewing-gum, etc. It can induce both contact urticaria and de-layed-type reactions. It can be responsible for dermatitis in the perfume industry or in food handlers. Cinnamic aldehyde is contained in fragrance mix. As a fragrance allergen, it has to be mentioned by name in cosmetics within the EU.
For products that are regulated by the FDA, the 'intended use' of a product or ingredient is the turnkey that determines whether an item is broadly classified as a food or a drug. Dietary supplements, no matter how they are presented, if intended to be used to supplement the diet, are reviewed by the Office of Special Nutritionals and related offices in the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) at FDA. The DSHEA included a number of provisions that apply to dietary supplements alone. As a result of the DSHEA the pre-market safety evaluations that are required for new food ingredients or new uses of approved food ingredients do not apply to dietary supplements. The DSHEA authorized the FDA to establish good manufacturing practice (GMP) guidelines for dietary supplements and dietary supplement ingredients and the DSHEA provided guidelines for the display of literature used to market dietary supplement products (Box 1.1). When a manufacturer wishes to market a dietary...
After a meal, the extent of rise of blood glucose depends on several interacting factors. At the beginning of this century, scientists assumed that the molecular size of the carbohydrate was an important determinant of its rate of digestion. Starch was thus considered to be digested and absorbed slowly whereas low-molecular-weight carbohydrates were believed to be absorbed rapidly, hence promoting high responses of plasma glucose. Studies have since shown that food properties other than molecular size influence the postprandial response and that starchy foods can have glycemic indices ranging from low to high (25-27). Any process that disrupts the physical or botanical structure of food ingredients will increase the plasma glucose and insulin responses (28).
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1974. Evaluation of the Health Aspects of Licorice, Glycyrrhiza, and Ammoniated Glycyrrhizin as Food Ingredients. Bethesda, MD FASEB Life Sciences Research Office, Bureau of Foods. Available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.
Finally, there are other acts containing regulations with peripheral references to foodstuffs, such as transport regulations concerned with freight conditions and labeling requirements for shipped materials. These may by sheer coincidence include a few categories of food ingredients or chemicals. Still, one must be aware of these. These examples of some South African food laws illustrate that a country's total complement of promulgated food legislation is probably found in an array of several separate and individual bodies of legislation. Some of these are prominently food related, while others could be of a more obscure nature and less known to a student of the soft drinks industry's food laws.
Increasingly, enzymes are being used as biocatalysts in manufacturing bulk chemicals, pharmaceutical and agrochemical intermediates, active pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients 9-13 . Enzymes offer a number of advantages over chemical catalysts in that they are derived from natural and renewable resources, are biodegradable, typically operate under mild conditions of temperature and pH, and generally offer exquisite selectivity in both reactant and product stereochemistry 14,15 . Despite the tremendous potential offered by enzymes as biocatalysts, applications are frequently hampered by evolution-led catalytic traits 16 . Enzymes have evolved to catalyze specific reactions under certain environmental conditions. From an industrial point of view, many enzymes are not readily amenable to industrial-scale use due to the extremes of temperature, pressure, pH, and other conditions used in such processes.
The current opportunities to educate consumers utilizing clearly defined food labels have never been greater. Using the synergy between the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) and the revised Food Guide Pyramid has facilitated great strides toward a better understanding on the part of the public regarding the constituents of a healthy diet. Just as it has learned the terms saturated fat , soluble fiber, and dietary cholesterol , the public is capable of understanding the term complex carbohydrate if the scientific issues are clarified. The primary questions are
'New ingredients' may be regarded as adulterants in foods unless they are naturally occurring or GRAS (generally recognized as safe). An expert panel in the FDA grants GRAS status to food ingredients. Such components are classified as food additives. Food additives that are not GRAS are regarded as unapproved food additives, and their presence in food renders it adulterated (Anon., 2001).
Cookbooks generally distinguish between seasonings (spices used in food preparation) and condiments (spices added after food is served), but not between herbs and spices (Sherman and Billing, 1999). Herbs are defined botanically (as plants that do not develop woody, persistent tissue), usually are called for in their fresh state, whereas spices generally are dried. 93 of recipes call for at least one spice. On average, recipes called for nearly four, but some lacked spices,
There is no clear boundary between spices, herbs, and condiments. Is black pepper a spice or a condiment Is coriander a spice, because the fruits are used as such, or a herb, because the leaves are used like parsley In The Book of Spices, Rosengarten suggests that spices are primarily tropical and herbs primarily temperate, but caraway is a temperate spice, and tropical species of Tagetes and Eryngium are used as herbs in Latin America. The decision about which species to include in this chapter and which to exclude has thus inevitably been somewhat arbitrary.
A major class of soluble fiber ingredients are the hydrocolloids, frequently referred to as gums (Dziezak, 1991). These compounds are long-chain polymers that dissolve or disperse in water to give a thickening, gel, or viscosity. Hydrocol-loids are also used for secondary effects that include stabilization of emulsions, suspensions of particulate, control of crystallization, inhibition of syneresis, encapsulation, and the formation of a film. They are classified as either food additives or ''generally recognized as safe'' (GRAS) substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Regulations of specific hydrocolloids are outlined in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations in Parts 172.580-172.874 and Parts 182.1480-184.1724, respectively. Hydrocolloids are generally used at levels of less than 2 percent to achieve desired properties in food systems. They are typically used to enhance food properties rather than provide the health benefits associated with dietary fiber....
The Accelrys143 bioactivity databases include BIOSTER, Biotransformations, and Metabolism.144 BIOSTER is a compilation of over 9 500 active molecules that include drugs, agrochemicals, and enzyme inhibitors from literature. This database provides keywords indicating the mode of action and cross-references to reports for each active compound. The Biotransformations database covers the metabolism of drugs, agrochemicals, food additives, and industrial and environmental chemicals in vertebrates. It is indexed with original literature, test systems and a set of generic keywords. The Metabolism database provides a reference source for entry into the primary literature on the metabolic fate of organic molecules. It covers biotransformations of organic molecules in a wide variety of species. The BIOSTER and Metabolism databases have been designed for use with the MDL-ISIS40 system, while Biotransformations is a standalone database. Accelrys further distributes Kinase ChemBioBase, a database...
Toxicity studies in animals showed an excellent tolerance, with oral acute toxicity ranging from over 6 g kg in rodents to over 3 g kg in dogs. Doses of up to 2 g kg per day were well tolerated in rats and monkeys, while no teratogenic or mutagenic effects were evidenced in rats and rabbits. In phase I studies, dosages up to 1.2 g per day were well tolerated in healthy volunteers (Magistretti and Pifferi, 1989). The lack of toxicity of cyanidin is not surprising, since the major industrial application of anthocyanins is as food additives.
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