Nanobacteria

Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria (0.2-0.5 mm), recently discovered in human and cow blood. The bacteria have been found in marine limestone, freshwater streams, springs, water pipes and caves (Folk, 1999). During their growth, nanobacteria form carbonate apatite on their cell envelope. Under the scanning electron microscopy, nanobacteria resemble the smallest apatite units in the kidney stone. Researchers now believe that nanobacteria can be the cause of kidney stones. Apatite...

Aflatoxins occurrence and significance

The aflatoxins are produced by a small number of species of Aspergillus which currently includes A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius and a species originally isolated from Ivory Coast soil, A. ochraceoroseus (Bartoli and Maggi, 1978 Klich et al., 2000). A strain of A. tamarii has also been shown to produce afla-toxin (Klich et al., 2000), but this may be a brown spored form of A. flavus and is certainly very closely related. It should be emphasised that not all strains within a species are...

References and further reading

Alexander m k, khan m s and dow c s, 1981 Rapid screening for bacteriuria using a particle counter, pulse-height analyser and computer, Journal of Clinical Pathology, 34 194-8. anon., 1986 Microorganisms in Foods 2. Sampling for microbiological analysis Principles and specific applications, ICMSF, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford. back j p and kroLL r g, 1991 The differential fluorescence of bacteria stained with acridline orange and the effect of heat, Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 71 51-8....