Contents

List of contributors xiii

Part I Risk assessment and management in the food chain

1 Introduction 3

Dr Clive Blackburn and Dr Peter McClure, Unilever R&D Colworth, UK

1.1 Trends in foodborne disease 3

1.2 Incidence of foodborne disease 4

1.3 Foodborne disease surveillance 5

1.4 Emerging foodborne disease and changing patterns in epidemiology 6

1.5 Control of foodborne disease 9

1.6 Rationale for this book 10

1.7 References 10

2 Detecting pathogens in food 13

Dr Roy Betts, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK and Dr Clive Blackburn, Unilever R and D Colworth, UK

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 A comparison of Quality Control and Quality Assurance . . . 14

2.3 Use of microbiology methods in a Quality

Control system 14

2.4 Sampling 15

2.5 Use of microbiology methods in a Quality

Assurance system 16

2.6 Conventional microbiological techniques 19

2.7 Rapid and automated methods 21

2.8 Future trends 44

2.9 References and further reading 45

3 Modelling the growth, survival and death of bacterial pathogens in food 53

Dr David Legan, and Dr Mark Vandeven, Kraft Foods North America; and Dr Cynthia Stewart and Dr Martin Cole, Food Science Australia

3.1 Introduction 53

3.2 Approaches to modelling 54

3.3 Kinetic growth models 56

3.4 Growth boundary models 72

3.5 Death models 77

3.6 Survival models 83

3.7 Applications of models: product and process design, product shelf-life 83

3.8 Applications of models: hygienic equipment design,

HACCP systems 84

3.9 Applications of models: risk assessment, food safety objectives 86

3.10 Future trends 88

3.11 Sources of further information and advice 91

3.12 References 91

4 Risk assessment and pathogen management 97

Dr Tom Ross and Professor Tom McMeekin, University of Tasmania, Australia

4.1 Introduction 97

4.2 The development of risk assessment 98

4.3 Risk assessment methodology 106

4.4 Risk assessment tools 114

4.5 The role of risk assessment in pathogen management:

food safety objectives and HACCP systems 117

4.6 Future trends 121

4.7 Sources of further information and advice 122

4.8 References 123

5 HACCP in farm production 127

Professor Mac Johnston, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, UK

5.1 Introduction 127

5.2 Planning the HACCP system 128

5.3 Problems with hazard and CCP identification 129

5.4 Good working practices 130

5.5 Critical Control Points 131

5.6 Documentation 133

5.7 HACCP plans: the examples of meat and dairy production 134

5.8 Summary: the effectiveness of HACCP on the farm 136

5.9 References 140

5.10 Appendix: model HACCP system for cattle 142

6 Hygienic plant design and sanitation 151

Dr John Holah and Dr Richard Thorpe, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK

6.1 Introduction: hygienic design 151

6.2 Level 1: the factory site 152

6.3 Level 2: the factory building 153

6.4 Level 3: internal barriers separating manufacturing processes 156

6.5 Hygienic construction 166

6.6 Hygienic equipment design 173

6.7 Sanitation: introduction 176

6.8 The principles of sanitation 177

6.9 Sanitation chemicals 179

6.10 Disinfectants 181

6.11 Sanitation methodology 183

6.12 Sanitation procedures 186

6.13 Evaluating the effectiveness of sanitation programmes 188

6.14 References and further reading 190

7 Safe process design and operation 197

Professor Martyn Brown, Unilever R and D Colworth, UK

7.1 Introduction: product and process design 197

7.2 Modelling and product/process design 199

7.3 Safety management tools: good manufacturing practice (GMP), HACCP and risk assessment 200

7.4 Principles of process design 202

7.5 Process flow and equipment 206

7.6 Manufacturing areas 207

7.7 Handling and processing products 215

7.8 Control systems 221

7.9 Conclusions 225

7.10 References and further reading 226

8 The effective implementation of HACCP systems in food processing 229

Ms Sara Mortimore, Pillsbury Europe, UK; and Mr Tony Mayes, Unilever R and D Colworth, UK

8.1 Introduction 229

8.2 HACCP methodology and implementation 231

8.3 Motivation 233

8.4 The knowledge required for HACCP 236

8.5 Initial training and preparation 237

8.6 Building knowledge and expertise 238

8.7 Resources and planning 244

8.8 Prerequisite programmes (PRPs) 246

8.9 HACCP teams 247

8.10 Hazard analysis 248

8.11 HACCP implementation 249

8.12 Maintenance 250

8.13 HACCP and globalised production 251

8.14 Future trends 252

8.15 References 254

9 Good practices for food handlers and consumers 257

Dr Chris Griffith, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, UK

9.1 Introduction 257

9.2 Food safety management in manufacturing: HACCP

and GMP 262

9.3 Safety management in the food service sector: GCP,

ASC and SAFE 263

9.4 Domestic food preparation: GDKP 263

9.5 Understanding food handlers 265

9.6 Improving food-handling practices 270

9.7 Future trends 274

9.8 References 274

Part II Bacterial hazards

10 Pathogenic Escherichia coli 279

Dr Chris Bell and Alec Kyriakides, Sainsbury's Supermarkets Ltd, UK

10.1 Introduction 279

10.2 Characteristics of Escherichia coli 280

10.3 Detecting Escherichia coli 286

10.4 Control of pathogenic Escherichia coli in foods 288

10.5 Raw material control 291

10.6 Control in processing 296

10.7 Final product control 300

10.8 Future trends 302

10.9 References and further reading 302

11 Salmonella 307

Dr Chris Bell and Alec Kyriakides, Sainsbury's Supermarkets Ltd, UK

11.1 Introduction 307

11.2 Characteristics of Salmonella 308

11.3 Detecting Salmonella 315

11.4 Control of Salmonella in foods 317

11.5 Raw material control 321

11.6 Control in processing 327

11.7 Final product control 330

11.8 General considerations 330

11.9 Future trends 331

11.10 References and further reading 331

12 Listeria monocytogenes 337

Dr Chris Bell, Consultant Microbiologist and Alec Kyriakides, Sainsbury's Supermarkets Ltd, UK

12.1 Introduction 337

12.2 Characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes 337

12.3 Detecting Listeria monocytogenes 345

12.4 Control of Listeria monocytogenes in foods 346

12.5 Raw material control 349

12.6 Control in processing 352

12.7 Final product control 356

12.8 Future trends 358

12.9 References 358

13 Campylobacter and Arcobacter 363

Dr Peter McClure and Dr Clive Blackburn, Unilever R and D Colworth, UK

13.1 Introduction 363

13.2 Characteristics of Campylobacter and

Arcobacter species 364

13.3 The nature of Campylobacter and

Arcobacter infections 366

13.4 Risk factors for Campylobacter 367

13.5 Risk factors for Arcobacter 370

13.6 Control procedures for Campylobacter 371

13.7 Control procedures for Arcobacter 372

13.8 Detection methods for Campylobacter 373

13.9 Detection methods for Arcobacter 376

13.10 Future trends 377

13.11 Sources of further information and advice 379

13.12 References 379

14 Enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus, Shigella, Yersinia,

Vibrio, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas 385

Dr Jane Sutherland and Dr Alan Varnam, University of North London, UK

14.1 Introduction 385

14.2 Characteristics of enterotoxin-producing staphylococci 385

14.3 Risk factors, detection methods and control procedures 387

14.4 Future trends 390

14.5 Further information 390

14.6 Characteristics of the genus Yersinia 390

14.7 Risk factors, detection methods and control procedures 392

14.8 Future trends 395

14.9 Further information 396

14.10 Characteristics of the genus Shigella 396

14.11 Risk factors, detection methods and control procedures 398

14.12 Future trends 400

14.13 Further information 400

14.14 Characteristics of the genus Vibrio 401

14.15 Risk factors, detection methods and control procedures 403

14.16 Future trends 407

14.17 Further information 407

14.18 Characteristics of the genera Aeromonas and Plesiomonas 407

14.19 Risk factors, detection methods and control procedures 410

14.20 Future trends 412

14.21 Further information 412

14.22 References 412

15 Characteristics of spore-forming bacteria 417

Dr Paul Gibbs, Leatherhead Food Research Association, UK

15.1 Introduction 417

15.2 Clostridium botulinum: general characteristics 418

15.3 Clostridium perfringens: general characteristics 421

15.4 Bacillus spp.: general characteristics 423

15.5 Methods of detection: Clostridium botulinum 427

15.6 Methods of detection: Clostridium perfringens 428

15.7 Methods of detection: bacillus spp 429

15.8 Control issues: Clostridium botulinum 429

15.9 Control issues: Clostridium perfringens 430

15.10 Control issues: bacillus spp 430

15.11 Sources of further information and advice 431

15.12 References 433

Part III Non-bacterial and emerging foodborne pathogens

16 Viruses 439

Dr Marion Koopmans, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, The Netherlands

16.1 Introduction 439

16.2 Current level of incidence 442

16.3 Conditions of growth and survival 445

16.4 Detection methods 446

16.5 Control issues 446

16.6 Sources of further information and advice 447

16.7 References 447

17 Parasites: Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Cyclospora as foodborne pathogens 453

Dr Rosely Nichols and Professor Huw Smith, Scottish Parasite Diagnostic Laboratory, UK

17.1 Introduction 453

17.2 Description of the organisms 453

17.3 Symptoms caused in humans 457

17.4 Infectious dose and treatment 459

17.5 Current levels of incidence 460

17.6 Conditions for growth 465

17.7 Detection methods 467

17.8 Control issues 467

17.9 The regulatory framework 470

17.10 Sources of further information and advice 472

17.11 References 472

18 Toxigenic fungi 479

Dr Maurice Moss, University of Surrey, UK

18.1 Introduction 479

18.2 Aflatoxins: occurrence and significance 480

18.3 Control measures 482

18.4 Ochratoxin A: occurrence and significance 483

18.5 Control measures 484

18.6 Patulin: occurrence and significance 484

18.7 Control measures 485

18.8 Fumonisins: occurrence and significance 485

18.9 Control measures 485

18.10 Other mycotoxins 486

18.11 Sources of further information and advice 487

18.12 References 487

19 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis 489

Professor Mansel Griffiths, University of Guelph, Canada

19.1 Introduction 489

19.2 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease 490

19.3 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in foods 491

19.4 Detection methods 495

19.5 Control measures 496

19.6 Sources of further information and advice 497

19.7 References 497

20 Chronic sequelae of foodborne infections 501

Dr Yasmine Motarjemi, Nestlé, Switzerland

20.1 Introduction 501

20.2 Aeromonas 503

20.3 Brucella spp 503

20.4 Campylobacter spp 503

20.5 Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli 504

20.6 Enterobacter Sakazakii 505

20.7 Helicobacter pylori 505

20.8 Listeria monocytogenes 506

20.9 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis 506

20.10 Nanobacteria 507

20.11 Non-Typhi Salmonella 508

20.12 Vibrio vulnificus 508

20.13 Yersinia enterocolitica 508

20.14 Toxoplasma gondii 509

20.15 Trematodes 509

20.16 Taenia solium 510

20.17 Trichinella spiralis 511

20.18 Viral hepatitis A virus 511

20.19 References 512

Index 515

Part I

Risk assessment and management in the food chain

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