Contusions are discolorations of the skin caused by bleeding into the tissues from ruptured blood vessels. In general, the older a person, the easier the vessels will rupture. There is no way, however, to determine exactly how much force is needed to produce a contusion. The age of a contusion is difficult to determine because of the great variability of a body's reaction to trauma. People with blood disorders and liver disease may develop more severe contusions than healthy individuals. As healing occurs, a contusion changes color from blue or red, to red-blue, to green, to brown, and finally yellow. These color changes, however, may appear out of order and may overlap. There is no way to know how long each color stage will last. Occasionally a recent contusion will have a brown tinge.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.