Drowning

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The diagnosis of drowning tends to be one of exclusion.

Other than some work with diatoms, there are no good drowning tests to prove a person drowned; the autopsy is usually negative. To make the diagnosis, the body is usually wet, or is found in water. There may be injuries from being in the water, such as tears and scrapes of the skin from impacts against boats or bridges. Occasionally, marine life, more often in salt water, may feed on the skin of the face, especially around the mouth, nose, and ears. Abrasions may be found on the forehead, knees, and backs of hands from a body scraping against the bottom of the lake or pool. There may be no external signs of trauma. Froth in the nose and mouth may be present. Wrinkling of the skin on the hands and feet is typical. Injuries to the body may occur from CPR attempts or from removing the body from the water. Internally, there may be heavy, wet lungs in those individuals who drown in salt water, but this is not always the

Pictures Suicide Hanging
figure 9.1 There may be blood on the clothing and relaxation of the bladder and bowels in people who hang themselves. It is also common for the decedent's feet to be touching the floor or ground.
How Make Latex Blood Bladder
figure 9.2 Most scene photographs show the people after they have already been taken down from the hanging position. See next photo.
Gunshot Wounds The Buttocks
figure 9.4 This man hanged himself. His left foot is on the floor and his right is resting on the chair. See next photo.
Gunshot Wounds The Buttocks
figure 9.3 The man in the previous photo was not discovered hanging. His buttocks were on the floor when he was found.
Tardieu Spots
figure 9.5 The feet on the floor or other objects are not an unusual finding. See next photo.
What Livor Mortis
figure 9.7 The livor mortis is as expected. It is concentrated in the dependent extremities. See next photo.
Dependent Lividity
figure 9.8 A posterior view also shows the dependent lividity. See next photo.
Tardieu Spots

"Tardieu spots." Notice the right leg does not have the spots figure 9.10 The bottom of the feet also reveal which foot because it was resting on the chair. These spots are also seen in was resting on the chair and which was in contact with the other parts of the body when the decedent has been dead for floor. The ball of the left foot (arrow) is pale because it was an extended period of time. See next photo. resting firmly against the floor.

"Tardieu spots." Notice the right leg does not have the spots figure 9.10 The bottom of the feet also reveal which foot because it was resting on the chair. These spots are also seen in was resting on the chair and which was in contact with the other parts of the body when the decedent has been dead for floor. The ball of the left foot (arrow) is pale because it was an extended period of time. See next photo. resting firmly against the floor.

Ligature Marks The Neck
figure 9.11 The rope pattern on this neck is very distinct and matches the rope. The pattern on the neck is wider than the rope because the folds of skin partially surrounded the ligature.
Ligature Marks The Neck
figure 9.13 A shoestring wrapped twice around the neck caused these pale marks with adjacent hemorrhage.
Ligature Marks Strangled Hands
figure 9.12 This is a typical nonpatterned abraded ligature mark which is commonly caused by objects such as towels, shirts, sheets, trousers, etc.
Ligature Marks
figure 9.14 Sometimes determining manner of death is difficult. This is probably an accident; however, this cannot be stated with certainty. The boy may have been experimenting to see how it feels to choke.
Suicide Methods Gunshot Wounds
figure 9.15 This retired physician had neck problems for which he used traction to ease the pain. Autopsy revealed he had a bad heart. There was no reason to believe he committed suicide. See next photo.
Gunshot Wounds Suicide
figure 9.16 Lividity is on his lower face as expected. His lips and tongue have dried. There were no soft tissue hemorrhages in the neck and there were no petechiae of the eyes.
Petechiae Strangulation
figure 9.18 The hand position of the assailant on this model suggests one method of how people are strangled. Most people die from the pressure on the blood vessels and not from collapsing the larynx and trachea. See next photo.
Autopsy Incision
figure 9.17 This military man hanged himself with a shoestring. He was autopsied in Europe (notice the lack of a Y-shaped incision). Interestingly, his neck organs had not been removed or examined.
Petichiae From Asphyxiation
figure 9.19 The victim may grasp the assailant's hands, leaving fingernail marks on his neck.
Petichiae From Asphyxiation

figure 9.21 The pinpoint hemorrhages in the this man's eyes and on the outside of his eyelids are called petechiae. Petechiae are not specific for strangulation. They can be found in other forms of asphyxiation and sudden death.

figure 9.20 This man was manually strangled. There are contusions on the lower part of the neck and fingernail marks (arrow) above the contusions. There were numerous soft tissue hemorrhages and petechiae of the eyes.

figure 9.21 The pinpoint hemorrhages in the this man's eyes and on the outside of his eyelids are called petechiae. Petechiae are not specific for strangulation. They can be found in other forms of asphyxiation and sudden death.

Petechiae And Strangulation
figure 9.22 The petechiae in this boy's eyes occurred when he accidentally hanged himself.
Petechiae Chin
figure 9.23 Hemorrhages in the trachea (left) may also be seen in strangulation and other asphyxial deaths. The lower arrow in the right photo points to the vocal cords while the upper arrow points to petechiae in the epiglottis.
Hyoid Bone And Strangulation

figure 9.24 The small hyoid bone is located high in the figure 9.25 Hem°irhage m the neck organs may tœ pre-

neck under the chin. The pathologist looks for injury to this sent (arrow). See rext: photo. structure because it is commonly fractured in a manual strangulation.

figure 9.24 The small hyoid bone is located high in the figure 9.25 Hem°irhage m the neck organs may tœ pre-

neck under the chin. The pathologist looks for injury to this sent (arrow). See rext: photo. structure because it is commonly fractured in a manual strangulation.

Manual Strangulation

figure 9.26 There is hemorrhage in the base of this tongue (arrow) caused by manual strangulation.

Hyoid Bone And Strangulation
figure 9.27 This man was killed by his daughter's boyfriend. The assailant said he strangled the man with a come-a-long during the fight. See next photo.
Manual Strangulation Marks
figure 9.28 This is a come-a-long. It is used to move a heavy object toward another object. One end is attached to a support and the hook is attached to the object to be moved. See next photo.
Manual Strangulation Marks

figure 9.29 The come-a-long is an unwieldy piece of equipment. It cannot be hooked and cranked quickly during a fight. The assailant lied about this. See next photo.

Ligature Strangulation

figure 9.30 A closer look at the neck reveals a second abraded ligature mark (arrow) below the area where the come-a-long was tightened. This proves the man's neck was compressed prior to the assailant's use of the come-a-long.

figure 9.29 The come-a-long is an unwieldy piece of equipment. It cannot be hooked and cranked quickly during a fight. The assailant lied about this. See next photo.

figure 9.30 A closer look at the neck reveals a second abraded ligature mark (arrow) below the area where the come-a-long was tightened. This proves the man's neck was compressed prior to the assailant's use of the come-a-long.

Gunshot Wounds Suicide
figure 9.31 Asphyxiation by occluding the airway with a bag. This method of suicide is seen more commonly in the elderly.
Gunshot Wounds Suicide

figure 9.32 The car this man was working on fell off the concrete blocks, compressing his neck. See next photo.

Suicide Gunshot Chest

figure 9.32 The car this man was working on fell off the concrete blocks, compressing his neck. See next photo.

figure 9.33 There were few serious injuries. The arrow points to the worst of his external injuries. See next photo.

Suicide Methods Gunshot Wounds

figure 9.34 The pressure on his neck caused impressive traffic accident. His face is dark purple from blood forced up hemorrhages in his eyes. The hemorrhages were not the typical to his head under pressure. He died because he could not petechiae seen in manual strangulation. breathe due to compression of his chest.

figure 9.34 The pressure on his neck caused impressive traffic accident. His face is dark purple from blood forced up hemorrhages in his eyes. The hemorrhages were not the typical to his head under pressure. He died because he could not petechiae seen in manual strangulation. breathe due to compression of his chest.

Manual Strangulation Marks
figure 9.36 The body of a young man was discovered upside down in his car after the car rolled over. See next photo.
Gunshot Wounds
figure 9.38 The arrow points to the only mark on this man's body after he was discovered compressed between the cab of his truck and the ground after an accident. He had petechiae, but there were no internal injuries.
Autopsy Gunshot Wounds
figure 9.37 Notice his head is bent completely around and resting on his chest. The autopsy revealed no injuries. His neck was not broken and there were no petechiae. This is another example of postural asphyxiation.
Incision Autopsy
figure 9.39 The abrasions on this boy's face were his only injuries. He died of suffocation after his face was compressed against another person's back.
Figure Bent
figure 9.40 These injuries to the neck appear significant; however, there was little internal damage. His head was caught between the floor of an elevator and the outside door of the elevator shaft. His head was bent enough to prevent breathing.
Autopsy Gunshot Wounds
figure 9.42 His nose and mouth were occluded by the pillow, and he suffocated. The autopsy was unremarkable except for signs of alcoholism. The scene investigation was essential in determining the proper manner of death (accident).
Petechial Hemorrhage Eye And Drowning
figure 9.41 This alcoholic fell asleep with his head on the pillow. See next photo.
Figure Bent
figure 9.43 Another case of positional asphyxiation. This alcoholic fell out of bed and ended up in a position in which he could not breathe. See next photo.
Figure Bent
figure 9.45 Death due to occlusion of the airway. This man fell into a silo while shoveling corn.

figure 9.44 His head was bent enough to prevent adequate aeration. Notice the dark discoloration of his head.

Pictures Gunshot Wounds The Head

figure 9.46 This woman was discovered dead at home by her mother. She was a chronic alcoholic who was known to swallow large quantities of food and then drink alcohol. She did this because she felt the food would decrease the absorption of the alcohol, thereby allowing her to remain drunk for longer periods of time. See next photo.

figure 9.46 This woman was discovered dead at home by her mother. She was a chronic alcoholic who was known to swallow large quantities of food and then drink alcohol. She did this because she felt the food would decrease the absorption of the alcohol, thereby allowing her to remain drunk for longer periods of time. See next photo.

Net Her Mouth Swallow
figure 9.47 A few fragments of food were in her mouth and on her face. See next photo.
Intubation With Food Bolus
figure 9.48 A bolus of turkey was lodged in her airway. See next photo.
Die During MasturbationPositional Asphyxia
figure 9.50 Autoerotic asphyxiation. This young man died from compression of the neck after he lost consciousness during masturbation. There were pornographic magazines on the floor and a full-length mirror leaning against the bed. See next photo.

figure 9.49 The wad of meat measured over 2" x 1.5" in total dimension. © 2000 CRC Press LLC

Gunshot Masturbation
figure 9.51 There was a towel around the neck to prevent abrasions and the ropes were tied in an elaborate swing-like configuration. See next photo.
Soldiers Graphic Gunshot Wounds

figure 9.53 This soldier also died during masturbation. He had a bag over his head during the act and died from a lack of oxygen.

figure 9.53 This soldier also died during masturbation. He had a bag over his head during the act and died from a lack of oxygen.

Hose Car Carbon Monoxide
figure 9.55 Most carbon monoxide asphyxiations occur in a garage. This one occurred in the open and no hoses were involved. See next photo.
Difficult Airway Gunshot Wound
figure 9.52 He had devised a slipknot to help him if he needed a quick escape. See next photo.
Poisoned Car Exhaust
figure 9.54 Carbon monoxide poisoning. The man who died in this car ran a hose from the exhaust into the interior.
Foam The Throat Drowning Victim
figure 9.56 The back seat of the car was removed; a hole was cut in the floor. See next photo.
What Livor Mortis
figure 9.59 Carbon monoxide poisoning causes red livor mortis. Red livor mortis also occurs in cyanide poisoning and from the cold.
Livor Mortis Pictures
figure 9.60 Soot or smoke in the trachea is a sign of inhalation at the time of the fire. The person was alive during the fire.
Body Drowning Victim
figure 9.61 Drowning. Foam in the nose is a classic sign of drowning. It may be the only sign of drowning on the body. Some drowning victims have abrasions of the face, forehead, hands, feet, and knees.
Foam Drowning Victim

figure 9.62 There are numerous abrasions, contusions, and figure 9.63 The boy's uncle also had similar injuries to his lacerations to this boy's face and mouth. He and his uncle face and mouth. See next photo. drowned in a shallow river during an afternoon outing with family. See next photo.

figure 9.62 There are numerous abrasions, contusions, and figure 9.63 The boy's uncle also had similar injuries to his lacerations to this boy's face and mouth. He and his uncle face and mouth. See next photo. drowned in a shallow river during an afternoon outing with family. See next photo.

Underwater Gunshot Images
figure 9.64 This is an underwater photograph showing none of the injuries to the young man's face that were evident at the autopsy. These injuries did not occur during a fight or the struggle for survival.
Autopsy Gunshot Wounds

figure 9.66 Abundant moss covered most of this young figure 9.67 The moss was especially thick on the trunk. It man's body after only three weeks in a pond. See next photo. had to be scraped away to look for injuries. See next photo.

figure 9.66 Abundant moss covered most of this young figure 9.67 The moss was especially thick on the trunk. It man's body after only three weeks in a pond. See next photo. had to be scraped away to look for injuries. See next photo.

Pictures Gunshot Wounds Face
figure 9.70 Another angle of the face after scraping, with good exposure of the mouth and teeth.
Gun Shot Wounds Face
figure 9.72 This man drowned after he was handcuffed, struck in the head, and forced into a river.
Gunshot Wounds Head
figure 9.69 The trunk and part of the face after scraping. See next photo.
Suicide Gunshot Mouth
figure 9.71 This young white man drowned in a river and was not found for 4-5 days after death in the early fall. There were no signs of drowning.
Suicide Gunshot Mouth
figure 9.73 Wrinkling of the skin from drowning. Notice the rest of the body does not have this change. The feet had skin slippage like the hands.
Drowned Woman Bathtub
figure 9.74 This woman was discovered in a tub full of water after the police went to her home to notify her of her boyfriend's death. He committed suicide by inhaling auto exhaust. See next photo.
Girl Handcuffed Drowns Bathtub
figure 9.75 A radio was in the water, suggesting electrocution. See next photo.
Petechiae And SuicideSkin Slippage After Death
figure 9.76 The water had caused significant skin slippage. See next photo.

figure 9.77 There were abrasions of the left hand and wrist. See next photo.

Gunshot Wounds Suicide

figure 9.78 There were abrasions under the chin, petechiae in the eyes, and soft tissue hemorrhage of the neck. She had been strangled and placed in the bathtub with a radio to make it appear as if she died of electrocution. The boyfriend strangled her and then committed suicide.

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Responses

  • demsas
    How to make a latex blood bladder?
    8 years ago
  • Gloriana
    Which is more common gunshot wounds or drowning?
    7 years ago
  • ELVIO
    What do drowning victims look like?
    3 years ago
  • eric
    Is there blood from hanging?
    2 years ago

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