Natural Leaky Gut Syndrome Treatment System Ebooks Catalog
Changes in gastrointestinal function are most pronounced for insoluble fibers. However, Oku et al. (38) found that polydextrose fed to rats at a dose of 3 of the diet partially demonstrated the DF actions of increased fecal volume and weight, decreased transit time and increased moisture of fecal samples. Tomlin and Read (39) found that polydextrose increased fecal mass and softened stools. Nakagawa et al. (40) found that polydextrose ingestion led to softer stools. Also, Wang and Gibson (36) measured growth of colonic bacteria in batch fermenters with various carbohydrates added. Over 12 h, polydextrose caused an increase in total bacteria similar to the other carbohydrates (pectin, starch, inulin, oligofructose, fructose). This is important because bacteria form a significant portion of fecal bulk.
The ingestion of starches can have a variety of effects depending on the plant source, cooking conditions and the individual's digestive tract. These variations result from interactions in both the upper gastrointestinal tract and in the colon and are not necessarily a consequence of chemical differences that are easily identified. Evidence that small amounts of resistant starch may have effects on gastrointestinal function and metabolism is important but this is just one aspect of a spectrum of effects originating from the same chemical entity. Information on these effects is not yet sufficient to include recommendations with respect to different starches and should not be of concern for the purpose of food labeling at this time.
The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in individuals with diabetes mellitus is higher as compared to the general population.21 The impact of diabetes mellitus on gastrointestinal function and quality of life was assessed by Talley et al22 in a total of 1101 Australian diabetics. Among the gastrointestinal symptoms that were assessed, 24.5 of patients reported having constipation, which was the most prevalent symptom reported among all diabetics, both types 1 and 2. The authors concluded that gastrointestinal morbidity among diabetics is high and is associated with a significant impairment of quality of life. This finding was echoed in another study that concluded that diabetic auto-nomic neuropathy is a serious and common complication of diabetes, and constipation is the most common lower gastrointestinal symptom.23 Gastrointestinal function of individuals who have diabetes mellitus and constipation were assessed by scintigraphic colonic transit studies, anal sphincter vector...
Neurological diseases most commonly affect gastrointestinal function by impairing motility, 154 less commonly by impairing resorptive and secretory processes. The differential diagnosis must include gastrointestinal dysfunction of Enteric motor neurons Smooth muscle cell in intestinal wall
Diphenolmethane derivatives (p. 177) were developed from phenolphthalein, an accidentally discovered laxative, use of which had been noted to result in rare but severe allergic reactions. Bisac-odyl and sodium picosulfate are converted by gut bacteria into the active colon-irritant principle. Given by the enteral route, bisacodyl is subject to hydrolysis of acetyl residues, absorption, conjugation in liver to glucuronic acid (or also to sulfate, p. 38), and biliary secretion into the duodenum. Oral administration is followed after approx. 6 to 8 h by discharge of soft formed stool. When given by suppository, bisacodyl produces its effect within 1 h.
Scombrotoxins Produced by gut bacteria-catalyzed L-histidine decarboxylation to histamine and its primary metabolite, saurine, in decomposing deep-sea finfish, especially scombroid species (tuna, mackerel, albacore, skipjack, and bonito), and even non-scombroid species (mahi mahi, wahoo, cobia, and amberjack). Tetrodotoxin Produced by endosymbiotic bacteria in all pufferfish (porcupine fish, globefish, balloon fish, blowfish, toadfish), marine sun-fish, and many other marine animals (stored in fish skin, gonads, liver, roe) and invertebrates (blue-ringed octopus saliva), and amphibians (newts and toads skin secretions).
Toxin Endogenous toxin production by endo-symbiotic gut bacteria (Bacillus, Micrococcus, Acinetobacter, Altermonas, Vibrio, and other enterobacterial species). LD50 (IV in mice) 9 mcg kg. Mechanism Reversible binding to the outer pore of the Na channel, with decreased Na influx, preventing depolarization and subsequent nerve action potentials (NAPs).
Making them a suitable species for early preclinical research. Their relatively small size and body weight also make optimal use of precious peptides and small molecules that are being evaluated for their antiobesity effects. While there are many similarities in how animals control food intake, energy expenditure, adipose tissue physiology, and gastrointestinal function, there are many differences that limit the predictive validity of these models. For instance, rats have no gallbladder and are unable to store bile and therefore this changes the digestive process compared to humans. Also, there are many notable differences in hormonal regulation that need to be considered. For example, in rodents, leptin produced impressive reductions in food intake, increased metabolism, and reduced adiposity (see Section 6.18.7). In most human obese patients, leptin had very little effect on any of these parameters. With this in mind, these types of studies become important to facilitate...
Toxins Scombrotoxins histamine and its primary N-methylhistamine metabolite, saurine. LD50 No known human fatalities. Mechanism Scombrotoxins form during gut bacteria-catalyzed, normothermic decarbox-ylation (Proteus, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, E. coli, Enterobacter species) of muscle L-histidine in decomposing finfish dangling on commercial long lines or in underrefrigerated ship holes. Vectors Paradoxically, non-scombroid fish are the most common food vectors of scombroid poisoning (amberjack, bonito, bluefish, mahi mahi, anchovies, sardines, herrings) scom-broid fish (albacore, cobia, tuna, mackerel, wahoo).
In this chapter, I would summarize that both inulin and oligofructose are indigestible, have significant 'dietary fiber effects' often comparable to pectins, are carbohydrates of plant origin, naturally occurring in significant amounts and show beneficial effects on the gut flora. For these properties, no significant differences have been found between inulin and oligofructose.
Change in gut flora and environment has a marked effect upon the incidence of diabetes in TxX rats (Penhale and Young, 1988). Thus, it is best to use specific-pathogen-free (SPF) animals and to perform the thymectomy as soon as they are removed from this environment. Afterwards the animals can be housed in a conventional but clean environment. If the Basic Protocol does not give the expected high incidence of diabetes, possibly because of the native gut flora, the Alternate Procedure should be used. This can greatly increase the severity of the disease, with some animals developing diabetes after only the third dose of irradiation.
Although initially developed as an antirheumatic agent (p. 320), sulfasala-zine (salazosulfapyridine) is used mainly in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and terminal ileitis or Crohn's disease). Gut bacteria split this compound into the sulfonamide sulfapyridine and mesala-mine (5-aminosalicylic acid). The latter is probably the anti-inflammatory agent (inhibition of synthesis of chemotactic signals for granulocytes, and of H2O2 formation in mucosa), but must be present on the gut mucosa in high concentrations. Coupling to the sulfon-amide prevents premature absorption in upper small bowel segments. The cleaved-off sulfonamide can be absorbed and may produce typical adverse effects (see above). Cleavage by intestinal bacteria
Vitamin K promotes the hepatic Y-car-boxylation of glutamate residues on the precursors of factors II, VII, IX, and X, as well as that of other proteins, e.g., protein C, protein S, or osteocalcin. Carbox-yl groups are required for Ca2+-mediat-ed binding to phospholipid surfaces (p. 142). There are several vitamin K derivatives of different origins K1 (phy-tomenadione) from chlorophyllous plants K2 from gut bacteria and K3 (menadione) synthesized chemically. All are hydrophobic and require bile acids for absorption.
Narcotic administration is perhaps the most common cause of iatrogenic constipation. Three types of receptors for opioid peptides have been identified as having effects on human gastrointestinal function , k, and X receptors. They all belong to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors, and reduce intracellular cyclic adeno-sine monophosphate (cAMP) by inhibiting adenylate cyclase.43 Opioid receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system, the intestinal musculature, and other tissues. They are found in high concentrations in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord where they process and relay afferent nociceptive signals to the central nervous system. In the brain, they are mainly in areas involved in pain transmission. -Receptors are the principal mediators of the analgesic action of endogenous and exogenous opioids, as well as the major side effects of sedation, bowel dysfunction, respiratory depression, and dependence. Localization studies of the human gut...
In older children the diagnosis of intestinal obstruction can often be made on the supine film alone. A search for air fluid levels on the upright view does not always add extra information and a search for free air in the abdomen is often more easily achieved using a lower radiation dose with a single upright view of the chest, which also serves to exclude lung pathology. 37(6) 1187-1198 Chao HC, Kong MS, Chen JY et al (2000) Sonographic features related to volvulus in neonatal intestinal malrotation. J Ultrasound Med 19 371-376 Katz ME, Siegel MJ, Shackelford GD, McAlister WH (1987) The position and mobility of the duodenum in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 148 947-951 Kim G, Daneman A, Alton DJ et al (1997) The appearance of inverted Meckel diverticulum with intussusception on air enema. Pediatr Radiol 27 647-650 Kosloske AM, Love CL, Rohrer JE et al (2004) The diagnosis of appendicitis in children outcomes of a strategy based on pe-diatric surgical evaluation. Pediatrics 113 29-34...
Afferent impulses enter the ANS from spinal tracts (anterolateral fasciculus spinothalamic + spinocerebellar + spinoreticular tracts), brain stem tracts (arising in the reticular formation), and corticothalamic tracts, and from the circumventricular organs. The latter are small clusters of specialized neurons, lying on the surface of the ventricular system, that sense changes in the chemical composition of the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid (i.e., on both sides of the blood-CSF barrier). These organs include the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (in the roof of the third ventricle behind the optic chiasm cytokines fever), the subfornical organ (under the fornices between the foramina of Monro angiotensin Il blood pressure and fluid balance), and the area postrema (rostral to the obex on each side of the fourth ventricle cholecystokinin gastrointestinal function, food intake). Efferent connections. Projections from the hypothalamus and brain stem,...
Glycosidases and sulfatases are further hydrolases of importance for drug metabolism. They primarily metabolize endogenous substrates including glycosaminoglycans and steroids, but they also accept some xenobiotic substrates this is particularly true for the beta-glucuronidases. The gut flora can deconjugate compounds that are excreted via the bile as glucuronides or sulfates. The deconjugation products are often reabsorbed from the gut leading to enterohepatic circulation. Frequently, the toxicity and mutagenicity of natural products is masked by sugar moieties in glycosides and deglycosylation leads to their toxic effects. Thus, glycosidases are toxifying in many cases. The procarcinogenic glycoside cycasin of the cycad plant, for example, needs glycosidase-mediated toxification. After oral treatment with cycasin, rats with a normal gut flora develop tumors in the liver, kidney, and intestine as a consequence of the bacterial glycosidase-mediated liberation of the genotoxic aglycon...
99 survival for cutaneous disease if treated early, 20 survival for inhalational disease, and intermediate survival for gastrointestinal disease Gastrointestinal tract and oropharyngeal anthrax are also uncommon. These infections result from ingestion of contaminated meat from infected animals. The incubation period is two to five days. Infection probably occurs in a manner similar to that in the skin, with ulcer formation, and bacterial proliferation in lymphatic tissues. Inoculation may occur at any point along the gastrointestinal tract, including the oropharynx. Symptoms and signs vary depending on the site of inoculation, and may include fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dysphagia, constipation, diarrhea, melena, and ascites. Mortality is considerable and may be the result of sepsis or intestinal perforation (4).
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