Forward Head Posture Fix

Forward Head Posture Fix

This ebook guide teaches you the muscles that you need to work to make sure that you have excellent posture all day long, and that you will have the benefits that go along with good posture. You will be able to get rid of many headaches, brain fog, and aching neck muscles by using this workout. There is no need to look old! Stooping is the sign of old age Even if you are an older person you too can work out this muscle group to give you the powerful posture of a much younger person! This bad posture that we are correcting is called texting neck. It comes when you look down at something (like a book or your phone) too often, which puts a huge strain on your neck. You will learn how to fix this problem and help your neck to be in better shape today. Your neck is supposed to remain vertical; we can help put it back where it goes to make sure that you stay healthy for years to come. Read more here...

Forward Head Posture Fix Summary


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Is Selective Neck Dissection Appropriate for the Treatment of the N0 Neck

It is generally accepted today that a radical neck dissection is not indicated for surgical treatment of the N0 neck.30 However, the preference between selective neck dissection and the modified radical neck dissection type III (MRND-III), in which the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the internal jugular vein, and the spinal accessory nerve are preserved, remains controversial. Some surgeons, particularly in Europe, advocate this type of MRND as the treatment of choice for the NO neck, whereas in North America many surgeons prefer a selective neck dissection. It is fitting to point out the differences between the two operations and to compare pertinent outcomes as they exist in the literature today. It was recently suggested that dissection of the supraspinal recess may not be necessary because the occurrence of metastases in this area of the neck is low.35,36 This is the dissection of the fibrofatty tissues located medial to the upper end of the ster-nocleidomastoid muscle and above and...

Mandibular Reconstruction

The complex issues related to restoration of the oro-mandibular defect are best highlighted by work done during World War II, when traumatic mandibular injuries were treated with static splints. Patients were often left with severe contractures and, as oral cripples, were unable to maintain oral compe-tency.24 The sequelae related to delayed mandibular reconstruction were observed quite early in history. In an effort to prevent these sequelae, nonvascularized rib, tibia, clavicle, and iliac bone were all used to primarily reconstruct the mandible during the early 1900s.24'25 Progressive resorption and the inability of the bone to withstand the axial stress associated with mastication led to poor results.26 To address this problem, Snyder et al.27 and Conley28 reported on the use of pedicled osteocutaneous flaps for mandibular reconstruction. A decade later, Barnes et al.29 pedicled clavicle on sternocleidomastoid muscle and Biller et al.5 reported on the use of rib pedicled on...

Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia

Ragged Muscle Biopsy

CLINICAL PRESENTATION CPEO begins in young adulthood with bilateral and symmetrical ptosis as the first clinical sign. Ophthalmoplegia follows months to years later and with progression the patient adopts a chin-up head posture with contraction of the frontalis muscles to help elevate the upper lids. Ultimately the globes are frozen in the midline. Exposure keratopathy and loss of superior visual field are major complications. Because the muscle weakness is symmetric, patients do not complain of diplopia. Rarely, ophthalmoplegia can be seen in the absence of ptosis. Weakness of facial, neck, and shoulder muscles may also be seen giving the patient a flat facial appearance. Occasionally neurological abnormalities may be associated including cerebral ataxia or pendular nystagmus. In KSS the retina shows a salt and pepper pattern of pigment degeneration. The ophthalmoplegia generally precedes the cardiac defects.

Lower Facial Dissection

This is essential because the flap will later be advanced by securing it to the superior occipital fascia with deep permanent sutures. As dissection continues inferi-orly in the occipital region, the plane become more superficial but still must remain beneath the hair follicles to avoid producing alopecia. As a general rule, if you see hair follicles, they probably are damaged. Flap elevation is carried out from behind, working toward the sternocleidomastoid muscle. In this area, sharp dissection will be required. We prefer to use the electrosurgical unit, but dissection can be carried out with a blade or scissors. As the dissection proceeds inferiorly and forward to the sternocleidomastoid muscle, we are careful to avoid injury to the external jugular vein and great auricular nerve. Once in front of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, we will again see the perforations produced by lipodissection. Now the remainder of the subcutaneous dissection is usually quite...

Descending Motor Tracts and Cranial Nerve Nuclei

Corticonuclear Pathway

Through the lateral rectus muscle VII is the mixed sensory and motor nucleus, which innervates the lachrymal, salivary glands, and muscles of facial expression, and receives afferents from taste receptors of some mouth areas, as well as sensation from the external skin of the ear VIII is the vestibulocochlear, which receives sensory afferents carrying information about balance, posture, hearing and head orientation in space IX is the glossopharyngeal, a mixed nucleus, which drives swallowing and parotid gland secretion, and receives inputs from taste buds of part of the tongue, and from the carotid body X is the vagus, a mixed nucleus, which innervates smooth muscle in heart, blood vessels, and many other types of smooth muscle and which receives several afferent inputs carrying visceral sensation XII is the spinal accessory, a motor nucleus that drives the muscles of larynx and pharynx, and the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles XII is the origin of the hypoglos-sal nerve,...

The Shaken Baby Syndrome

Shaking.28 The injuries produced were allegedly caused by the resultant whiplash action of the child's relatively heavy head in association with weak neck muscles an immature, partially membranous skull a relatively large sub-arachnoid space and a soft, immature brain. In other words, these injuries were not caused by direct-impact injuries to the head, but rather by indirect acceleration-deceleration traction stresses caused by the head's whipping back and forth. Since then, this diagnosis has gained a considerable following among clinicians. Interestingly, many of the cases described in Caffey's original paper would not be classified as examples of SBS nowadays, as no brain injury was involved. Caffey's paper also suffered from a number of problems in regard to his case material, e.g., the source of 15 of the 27 cases was Newsweek magazine. Other theories expressed in his paper are extremely dubious, e.g., over-vigorous burping might be fatal breath-holding spells, body-rocking and...

Prevention and Optimization

In patients who have undergone previous irradiation or brachytherapy, coverage of underlying vessels or microvascular anastomosis with vascularized soft tissue should be considered. To protect the exposed and radiated carotid artery, vascular-ized muscle flaps from the levator scapulae, digastric and mylo-hyoid muscles, or prevertebral fascia can be used for local coverage. Dermal grafts can also be used however, no definitive improvement in fistulization rates have been seen with their use. Local muscle flaps, such as the sternocleidomastoid, or muscle flaps from areas distant to the radiated fields, such as the pec-toralis myocutaneous and trapezius muscle flaps, can also be transposed to cover the carotid artery and support the pharyngeal closure. The pectoralis myocutaneous flap, in particular, has become the workhorse flap in head and neck surgery, largely because it is rapidly harvested and easily transposed into most defects. In addition it provides excellent coverage for...

G Electroencephalogram

The recordings are obtained by scalp disc electrodes placed bilaterally and symmetrically in standard locations, using the International 10-20 System. The sites for placement are determined by measurement from four standard head positions nasion, inion, right and left pre-auricular points. The electrodes are coated with conductive paste held in place by adhesives, suction, or pressure from caps and headbands. The scalp-derived EEG is distorted by the presence of CSF, skull and scalp.

Efferent Connections of the Reticular Formation

Reticulospinal Tract Mice

Descending reticulospinal fibers travel either crossed or uncrossed in the ventral portion of the lateral funiculus and also in the ventral funiculus. These fibers give off collaterals on their way down the spinal cord, and usually terminate on spinal interneurons, which synapse in turn with ventral horn motoneurons. The reti-culospinal neurons may be excitatory or inhibitory, and one reticular formation neuron is thus able to influence more than one motoneuron at different spinal levels. Functionally, the reticulospinal tracts are involved in voluntary movements of proximal muscles, and in the control of body posture related to the orientation of the body and head with respect to environmental signals. There are at least two areas of the reticular formation involved in the control of skeletal muscle tone. There is a medullary region which when stimulated inhibits the stretch reflex. There is also a more rostral region in the midbrain with opposite effects, in that stimulation of this...

The fly motion vision system an overview

However, these neurons do not integrate the output signals of local motion detectors independently but interact with each other. Specific connections have been determined between tangential neurons of the left and the right lobula plate as well as between neurons within one lobula plate (Figure 14.1, colored lines). These connections tune many tangential cells responsive to specific motion signals in front of both eyes, and others that are selectively responsive to motion of small moving objects or relative motion. Tangential cells have been shown to synapse onto descending neurons (e.g., 86 ) which connect either to the flight motor in the thoracic ganglion of the animals controlling the various flight maneuvers, or to specific neck muscles controlling head movements (not shown).

Lower extremity motor prostheses

Current research trends for the lower extremity motor prosthesis, such as in the upper extremity, are directed toward increasing the functional capabilities of the motor prosthesis and advancing the technology. To this end, several different investigations have been identified that are aimed at improving walking and standing using motor prostheses. The research being conducted at the Salisbury District Hospital95 is directed toward providing standing in individuals with sustained paraplegia using sacral root stimulation. The system that has been developed, the lumbosacral anterior root stimulator implant (LARSI), uses 12 intradural electrodes placed on the second lumbar through the second sacral anterior roots in the cauda equina. Postsurgical stimulation of each of the roots individually is performed to identify joint movement generating capabilities and nerve stimulation combinations to achieve upright standing. Currently, two individuals have received the system and, even though...

Branchial Cleft Anomalies

Second branchial cleft sinus is found as an opening from the anterior border of the lower one-third of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. It is most commonly associated with clear drainage, and its presentation is usually in childhood. Second branchial cleft cysts usually present as a mass that is anterior to and below the upper one third of the SCM. It presents in adulthood and there is an associated risk of in situ cancer.

Position And Skin Incision

The patient is positioned supine with the head fixed in the three-point Mayfield headholder (Ohio Medical Instruments, Cincinnati, OH) and rotated to the side contralateral to the tumor (Fig. 82-3). A crescent-shaped incision is marked extending from above the ear curving posteriorly and inferiorly behind the ear and extending into the neck across the rostral aspect of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. For tumors with significant anterior extension, the external auditory canal may be transected and oversewn into a blind sac during the opening to gain maximal anterior reflection of the musculocutaneous flap.

With Autistic Spectrum Disorders

Mostly aimless, fragmented, unpurposeful behavior and emotional expressions (e.g., no purposeful grins or smiles or reaching out with body posture for warmth or closeness). Often purposeful and organized, but not with a full range of emotional expressions (e.g., seeks out others for closeness and warmth with appropriate flirtatious glances, body posture, and the like, but becomes chaotic, fragmented or aimless when very angry).

Serotonin 5HT1A Receptor Agonists

Upon administration of 5HT1A receptor agonists a series of responses is observed which are all potentially suitable for PK PD characterization. These in vivo effects can be classified into four groups physiological (e.g., induction of hypothermia), endocrinological (e.g., stimulation of corticosterone release), behavioral (e.g., induction of flat body posture or forepaw treading), and therapeutic-like effects (e.g., reduction of fear-induced ultrasonic vocalizations or immobility in the forced-swimming test).108 The hypothermic response is a continuous, reproducible, objective,

Posterior Petrosectomyneurotologist

Figure 82-3 Positioning for the craniocervical approach. The patient is placed supine with the head in three-point fixation. The head is rotated to the contralateral side and a crescent-shaped skin incision is made from above the ear, passing 4 cm behind the mastoid tip, and down the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle to the cricoid cartilage. (Reprinted with permission from Tew JM, van Lov-eren HR, Keller JT Atlas of Operative Microneurosurgery, Volume II. WB Saunders. In press.) Figure 82-3 Positioning for the craniocervical approach. The patient is placed supine with the head in three-point fixation. The head is rotated to the contralateral side and a crescent-shaped skin incision is made from above the ear, passing 4 cm behind the mastoid tip, and down the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle to the cricoid cartilage. (Reprinted with permission from Tew JM, van Lov-eren HR, Keller JT Atlas of Operative Microneurosurgery, Volume II. WB Saunders. In...

Natural and Peptide Induced Behaviors in Drosophila

Figure 26 Timelines of the Drosophila ecdysis sequence. (a) About 60 min prior to ecdysis, a new set of mouth hooks for the 2nd instar larva becomes visible adjacent to those of the 1st instar double mouth hooks'' (dMH). The appearance of double vertical plates'' (dVP) 30 min later was used as time zero'' in the ecdysis sequence. Upon ETH release from Inka cells 10 min after dVP, old tracheae collapse and the new, 2nd instar tracheae are inflated. (a,b) About 5 min later, pre-ecdysis begins with a series of anterior-posterior (A-P) contractions followed by a different pattern of muscle contractions squeezing waves'' (SW). During A-P and SW pre-ecdysis movements, old and new mouthparts are separated. About 25 min after dVP, ecdysis behavior is initiated with one or two forward head thrusts (FT). These movements help to plant old mouthparts onto the substrate and to extricate old tracheae through lateral segmental spiracular pits, which are normally closed but become functional during...

Exercise and Fitness

Exercise also lowers your risk of developing diabetes, high blood pressure, and colon cancer, and helps to reduce blood pressure in people who have high blood pressure. Exercise helps build and maintain healthy bones, muscles, and joints and prevents back pain by increasing your strength and flexibility and improving your posture. Physical activity also helps to decrease your percentage of body fat by preserving muscle mass. Exercise helps you lose weight and maintain your loss this is another way exercise helps you stay healthy and live longer. It can help

Branchial cleft cyst

Asymptomatic, fluctuant nodule, occurring along the lower portion of the anterome-dial border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle between the muscle and overlying skin sometimes becomes tender if secondarily inflamed or infected with a sinus tract, occasional mucoid or purulent exudate


Webster et al.6 performed a series of operations in 1982 in which they attempted to show that imbrication, the undermining and advancement of the SMAS, failed to increase the amount of posterior displacement of aesthetically important landmarks as compared with simple plication of this layer. Despite these results and an ongoing debate in the literature concerning the efficacy of SMAS surgery, the standard approach to the SMAS is extensive freeing of the skin in the cheek area to the cheek-lip fold. In the neck, the skin is undermined across the midline in most patients. When imbricating, the SMAS is incised horizontally 1 cm below the zygomatic arch. The vertical limb runs inferiorly in front of the ear to connect with the platysma along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The dissection of this SMAS flap extends to the anterior border of the parotid gland, avoiding any injury to the facial nerves. As the SMAS runs in continuity with the playsma, the extent of the...


The traditional SMAS technique differs from the above deep-plane technique primarily in that the skin is undermined widely and it is separated completely from the underlying SMAS layer. This requires that a long skin flap be created which is at some risk of ischemia at the edges. In the SMAS technique the SMAS is incised parallel and 1 cm below the zygomatic arch from the pretragal area anteriorly for approximately 4 to 5 cm and undermined and raised in continuity with the posterior border of the platysma. The platysmal flap is begun by continuing the incision of the SMAS flap downward along the midportion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. At the posterior border of the platysma muscle the flap is elevated anteriorly approximately 7 cm or as far as the anterior platysmal border if necessary. The superior limit of this undermining is a line running 2 cm below the border of the mandible in order to prevent injury to the marginal mandibular nerve. Next the flaps are separately...

Deepplane Dissection

Once the flap is elevated and hemostasis maintained the flap can be secured. Using a strong permanent suture (3-0 braided silk), the upper part of the flap is attached to the tem-poralis fascia, exerting a strong pull. Next, the platysma muscle is pulled back, attaching it to the mastoid fascia. Immediately, we can see a marked tightening of the face and neck. These are the two primary anchoring sutures. We continue to suture the posterior border of the platysma to the fascia overlying the sternocleidomastoid muscle using interrupted 3-0 silk suture. The pull is actually in a posterior superior direction, such that the platysmal flap actually forms a sling that supports the ear lobe and tends to prevent subsequent inferior migration of the ear, which can result in the deformity commonly called pixie ear. In the facial region, the flap is attached to the parotid fascia in the preauricular area. A firm pull is applied, as this forms the primary support of the facelift.

Habit Training

The majority of commodes are approximately 35 to 40 cm in height if a patient's feet or legs hang free or dangle above the floor while sitting, simulation of the squatting position will not be accomplished. Flexion of the hips and pelvis provides the optimal body posture. Full flexion of the hips stretches the anal canal in an antero-posterior direction and tends to open the anorectal angle, which facilitates rectal emptying. This position may be achieved by the use of a footstool to elevate the legs and flex the hips.16 Patients who have difficulty evacuating do not tolerate the symptoms of gas and bloating associated with fiber intake. Once emptying improves, these patients are encouraged to slowly begin weaning their laxative use and slowly adding fiber.

Referred Ear Pain

Siegle Speculum

If examination of the drum and meatus is normal in a patient complaining of earache, the pain is referred. Referred ear pain may be from nearby structures such as the temporo-mandibular joint, neck muscles, or cervical spine. It may also be from the teeth, tongue, tonsils, or larynx. Cranial nerves V, IX, and X which supply these sites have their respective tympanic and auricular branches supplying the ear. Earache also frequently precedes a Bell's palsy.


The issue of carcinoma in a branchial cleft cyst may arise in a situation where a cystic neck mass is found to contain squamous cell carcinoma and no obvious primary lesion is found despite appropriate evaluation.1,31 This concept of carcinoma in a branchial cleft cyst was first reported by Von Volkmann in 1882.32 Since then, there has been ongoing controversy regarding this issue. Most authorities believe that if this lesion occurs at all, it is very rare indeed.1 Guidelines for establishing such a diagnosis were outlined by Martin, Morfit, and Ehrlich in 19 5 0 33 (1) cervical tumor occurs along a line from the tragus extending along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle to the clavicle, (2) histology should demonstrate branchial vertigia, (3) no primary lesion is found after 5 years of follow-up, and (4) there is histologic evidence of cancer developing in the wall of an epithelium-lined cyst.

Spinal accessory

Third Dorsal Compartment

This is motor to the muscles bounding the posterior triangle of the neck sternocleidomastoid and trapezius. Passes deep to sternocleidomastoid which it supplies. Enters roof of posterior triangle of neck. Surface marking in posterior triangle one third of way down posterior border of sternocleidomastoid to one third of way up anterior border of trapezius. Spinal roots arise from cells in lateral part of ventral grey column of cervical cord. Nerve ascends through foramen magnum, then through jugular foramen to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius


The dermis which could cause skin dimpling. The extent of lipodissection extends from beneath the zygomatic arch anteriorly beyond the extent of the parotid gland, partially overlying the masseter muscle. Along the angle of the mandible, suction is carried out toward the chin. While approaching the chin, it is critical to remain in a superficial plane since the mandibular branch of the facial nerve is quite superficial in this area and is not covered by muscle. It is very important to carry the lipodis-section far forward toward the chin to facilitate release of mandibulocutaneous attachments in that region. Adequate rehabilitation of the jowl is dependent on this release. In the neck, dissection is carried down to the hyoid and posteriorly to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Overlying and posterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle, there are often thick attachments between the skin and the deeper structures of the neck and it may not be possible to develop a superficial plane with...

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