Working with traditional healers is a thrilling experience. These individuals are frequently excited that someone is interested in their knowledge. Figure 4.1 shows the author working with a traditional healer in Samoa collecting the medicinal plant Atuna racemosa. This healer's excitement that someone was interested in her knowledge was so great that she was first in line to package samples for analysis. Yet the reasons behind this healer's excitement are lamentable. There is a lack of interest in traditional medicine from the younger generation, and as a result there is a generational loss of traditional medicine knowledge 20 . For example, the two individuals that identified Prostratin as an antiviral have since passed away, and it is likely that an individual performing the Figure 4.1 Collecting a medicine plant in Samoa. Ethnobotanical work involves working with healers to identify the medicinal uses of plants. Although this work is laborious, traditional medicine healers are...
Primatology, arguments in favour of applying comparative methods based on cladistics to this context tend to refer back to an emphasis on evolution as the unifying concept of biology (Funk and Brooks, 1990). This view notes that patterns of variation and change over time in organismic diversity provide the fundamental data of evolutionary biology, whatever the special features of different subdisciplines might be. Within the subdiscipline of primate socioecology, concern is focused on ecological, behavioural, and life history information, and the patterns of association between them. Research into such associations can encourage the construction of models of evolution that describe the interaction of these sets in hierarchical terms (Salthe, 1985). Models of evolving hierarchical systems have described, on the one hand, ecological hierarchies, or economic systems, manifested in patterns of energy flow in ecosystems. On the other hand, the genealogical hierarchies describe systems of...
In Ayurveda, a harmonious relationship between mind, body, and spiritual awareness is believed to be important. The function of these entities is regulated by three physiologic principles known as doshas. Disease is claimed to be the result of an imbalance of the doshas, and treatment aims to restore dosha balance. As in traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda holds that an important life force, called prana, exists.
Elena (forty-eight, married thirty years) Well, our roles are kind of traditional. Eric says that I bring in the softer side to the family. There's three guys and me. So I try the special touches that men wouldn't do. I mean if they lived in a house it would be all stainless steel. So, bringing in the color. He is the leader. Spiritually, physically, mentally. I mean, he's the protector of the family, the provider, and he takes that very seriously. . . . I see him as the provider, the spiritual leader.
The possibility that interactions between two different cell types might significantly modulate the production or activation of interstitial collagenase was first suggested by Grillo and Gross.57 Using a wound healing system in guinea pig skin they demonstrated that the wound edge, containing both epithelium and mesenchyme (granulation tissue), had a high level of collagenolytic activity, whereas the separated epithelium and mesenchyme alone showed low activity. When sheets of epithelium isolated from the wound edge were recom-bined with the mesenchyme from the same region, the enzyme activity was restored to the same level as that of whole tissue.
The use of magnets and electromagnetic fields is a type of energy medicine. Magnets and electricity have been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years. They were used in ancient China to stimulate acupuncture sites. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, it was claimed that lodestones, minerals with natural magnetic qualities, relieved a variety of medical conditions. Paracelsus, a sixteenth-century Swiss physician and alchemist, used magnets to treat seizures. In the eighteenth century, Franz Mesmer, an Austrian physician, proposed a theory of animal magnetism and wrote a book on the subject, On the Medicinal Uses of the Magnet. It was later found that his therapy was based on hypnotism (see the chapter on Hypnosis ), not on any therapeutic effects of magnets. A large number of magnetic and electrical devices were promoted during the nineteenth century, which is sometimes referred to as the golden age of medical electricity. These devices included magnetic insoles, belts,...
Sessions typically last from 20 to 30 minutes and cost between 30 and 60. Practitioners of therapeutic touch may be found in the phone book under various listings therapeutic touch, health services, holistic centers, holistic nurses, and holistic practitioners. More information about therapeutic touch and practitioners may be obtained from Nurse Healers Professional Associates Incorporated, PO. Box 444, Alison Park PA 15101 (412-355-8476)
There are many clinical applications for the delivery of electrical currents to the body that do not involve the activation of excitable tissue. Unfortunately, the marketplace is also littered with all sorts of energy medicine contraptions and procedures that claim to balance the flow of vital energy in the body using currents delivered to the body. Needless to say, the latter are all either extremely controversial or totally unproven. Some, such as electroacupuncture, are simply old alternative treatments with an electrical twist. Others are without doubt the electrical equivalents of snake oil. Let's take a look at what is real and what is quack.
Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are a necessary component of the oxygen combustion that drives the metabolism of living things. Although they are important for generating the life force, they are also extraordinarily harmful. Organisms thus had to evolve protective mechanisms against oxidative stress. Over the course of evolution, different enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidative mechanisms were developed, such as various vitamins, ubiquinone, glutathione, and circulating proteins such as hemopexin. Hyaluronan may also be one such mechanism, acting also as a free radical scavenger (168).
Clinicians have long been aware of the frequency with which insomnia and fatigue figure in the complaints of individuals living with HIV. Fatigue and sleep disturbance can affect a wide range of activities and even health itself in this population, as the healing benefits of sleep are lost at the time when patients have the greatest need of rest and renewal. A study that compared HIV-positive and HIV-negative homosexual men found that the HIV-infected patients were significantly more likely to report a problem with fatigue, although they slept more and napped more than the HIV-negative subjects. This fatigue interfered with important activities such as employment and driving and was also correlated with measures of immunosuppression and inflammation (Darko et al., 1992). Why do HIV-positive individuals feel fatigued and sleep poorly Although these two complaints are obviously interrelated, they are not synonymous. Some patients with HIV infection may sleep relatively well, wake up...
Were carrying electrical impulses supporting the Galenic idea that autonomic fibers might influence the secretion of 'humors' from peripheral glands such as thyroid gland. The thyroid gland had not been identified until the Renaissance. The regulation of energy body stores and temperature by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis was suggested again by Claude Bernard in the late 1800s. The current term 'hypothalamus', however, was not actually introduced until 1893 by the Swiss anatomist, Wilhelm His. From these observations, Harris developed the concept of the control of the adenohypophysis by humoral factors produced in the hypothalamus. This led to the award of the Nobel Prize to Schally and Guillemin, who independently isolated the structures of some of these so-called 'Releasing hormones'.
The next logical step in the evolution of structure prediction is to generalize further the knowledge-based methods described so far in order to make maximum use of the motifs in the PDB, even in the absence of any detectable a priori homology, and to eventually replace the physically motivated idea of a universal energy function. Local structure will be modeled using fragment libraries, inter-residue interactions through generalized distance constraints, and multibody correlations through localized motif templates. The scoring function will become a moving target that adapts itself to the results of the simulation, adding a knowledge-based component to the already sophisticated search methods currently in use.
T'ai chi may be done individually or in groups. A high level of strength and flexibility are not required because the exercises are based largely on technique. T'ai chi consists of slow, rhythmic body movements. The arms are moved slowly and smoothly in circular movements while weight is shifted from one leg to the other and specific breathing techniques are used. A specified series of movements is known as a form. T'ai chi movements are claimed to balance the two opposing forces within the human body, yin and yang. Performing t'ai chi movements is believed to strengthen and balance the life force, known as chi or qi.
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