Part of Marlatt and Gordon's 1985 model of the relapse process involving a cognitive-emotional reaction that includes (a) guilt from relapsing and engaging in an undesired behavior (e.g., smoking) after quitting smoking or changing the behavior (e.g., smoking cessation), which is discrepant from the new self-image (e.g., a nonsmoker); and (b) an attribution that the relapse episode was due to personal weakness. This usually results in perceptions of decreased self-efficacy in considering readopting a desired health behavior (Cormier, 2002; Parks, Anderson, & Marlatt, 2001; Shiffman et al., 1996). In addition to smoking, AVE can be experienced among binge eaters (Grilo & Shiffman, 1994) and people with other addictive disorders. See Relapse Prevention.
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Among the evils which a vitiated appetite has fastened upon mankind, those that arise from the use of Tobacco hold a prominent place, and call loudly for reform. We pity the poor Chinese, who stupifies body and mind with opium, and the wretched Hindoo, who is under a similar slavery to his favorite plant, the Betel but we present the humiliating spectacle of an enlightened and christian nation, wasting annually more than twenty-five millions of dollars, and destroying the health and the lives of thousands, by a practice not at all less degrading than that of the Chinese or Hindoo.