Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

When prolonged maximal medical therapy and adenoidectomy both fail to provide adequate relief in a child with at least 6 months of severe symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis, the child may be a potential candidate for functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS).78,85 The Caldwell-Luc procedure is essentially contraindicated in young children due to the potential for damage to unerupted teeth.29,44 Indications for FESS in pediatric rhinosinusitis remain poorly defined and shrouded in...

Posterior Petrosectomyneurotologist

After completion of the cervical exposure, our neurotologist performs the posterior petrosectomy. This is performed under the operating microscope with continuous irrigation and a variety of cutting and diamond bits on a high-speed drill. Transcanal Postauricular Postauricular Postauricular Traditional skull base Traditional skull base Modified infratemporal Modified and or extended infratemporal Figure 82-3 Positioning for the craniocervical approach. The patient is placed supine with the head...

Histologic Effects of Photoaging and Skin Resurfacing

Most patients seeking evaluation for skin rejuvenation have a history of significant sun exposure. Clinical signs of actinic damage include the development of coarse rhytids, rougher skin texture, pigmentary mottling, and the development of solar lentigines and actinic keratoses. Histologically, changes in the epidermis and dermis of patients with sun-damaged skin develop as well. Epidermal dysplasia occurs, indicated by thickened epidermis and the appearance of dysplastic cells. Clinically,...

Conservative Treatment

In the absence of complications, such as sensorineural hearing loss, treatment of active, uncomplicated PLFs should always begin with conservative treatment. About 85 of patients will improve with 6 weeks of bed rest.62 The goal of bed rest is to minimize movement across the defect causing PLF. This immobilization technique is accomplished by minimizing changes in intracranial, intrathoracic, and or intra-abdominal pressure and is analogous to the principles of wound healing employed by all...

Controversies in Surgical Management of Sleep Apnea

One of the more controversial issues in otolaryngology deals with the sleep-obstructive patient. This spectrum ranges from patients with the noise-only snore, to patients who frequently awaken with sleep interruption disorder of snoring, to patients with full-blown apnea with documented obstruction and desaturation. Several standards are established for the criteria for apnea, on the basis of frequency of pauses and degree of oxygen desaturation stated as the clinical parameters of sleepiness....

Conclusion

Patients presenting with metastatic disease in the neck from an occult primary tumor remain a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. However, many patients presenting with squamous cell carcinoma, especially those with early stage disease, may be offered effective treatment with the prospect of a favorable outcome. It is essential that a thorough evaluation be undertaken before definitive therapy. Careful physical examination, imaging studies, and endoscopy with biopsies will detect the primary...

Chronic Drainage

After topical or oral antibiotics, or both, have been given for initial treatment, the patient is reexamined at 10 days. If drainage is greatly improved but not yet resolved, the same antibiotics can be continued for another 10 days. However, if drainage is no better, several causative factors must be considered. First, chronic drainage can persist because the bacteria are resistant to the antibiotic. Frequently this implies that the infection is caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is...

Recommended Indications for Tympanocentesis Myringotomy

Otitis media in patients who have severe otalgia, are seriously ill, or appear toxic 2. Unsatisfactory response to antimicrobial therapy 3. Onset of otitis media in a patient who is receiving antimicrobial therapy 4. Otitis media associated with a confirmed or potential suppu-rative complication 5. Otitis media in a newborn, sick neonate, or immunologically deficient patient, any of whom might harbor an unusual organism effusions resolve spontaneously during the 3 months after onset. There is a...

Background

Chemical peeling of the face has been performed for centuries. The ancient Egyptians used particles of alabaster mixed with milk and honey to abrade the skin in an attempt to tighten the facial skin. Substances including acids, minerals, sulfur, mustard, fire, sandpaperlike products, limestone, and plant substances have been used in an attempt to reduce facial rhytids and to reverse changes associated with photoaging. During the early twentieth century, interest in skin revital-ization again...

Management of the Unilateral Atretic

No one would argue that surgery for congenital aural atresia has the same potential for hearing restoration as does stapedectomy few middle ear procedures involving the middle ear ossicles do. But is the success rate so modest that unilateral cases are best observed, at least until the individual is an adult and can make his or her own decision We cannot overemphasize the importance of complete audiologic evaluation even in the child with unilateral atresia with or without microtia. The routine...

Discussion

Extranasal lateral rhinotomy or maxillary degloving with eth-moidectomy and medial maxillectomy are the gold standard operations for extensive inverting papilloma involving the ethmoid and maxillary sinuses. These procedures and the positive results reported in treating inverting papilloma were developed after years of inadequate intranasal and extranasal procedures. The only reason to change management philosophy depends on equivalent or improved management techniques. Endo-scopic diagnosis...

Eve Bluestein

In general, most children with retrognathia have some degree of airway obstruction as part of their anomaly. In managing these children, physicians should attempt to minimize any airway obstruction present while promoting normal neurologic development and ensuring appropriate weight gain. Although positioning may be successful in some patients, alternative measures have been necessary in other children in order to enable retrognathic children to grow and develop normally. The literature is...

Problems And Complications Of Pess

For most sinus surgeons, the scope of PESS has been reduced sufficiently that it is now a relatively safe and well-tolerated procedure. Some concerns remain. Most importantly, the surgery may not achieve the expected results. For example, we have seen many children who have undergone one or more sinus surgeries with a period of improvement, only to exhibit similar radiographic and clinical findings again, and to become surgical candidates once again. In these cases, what are the goals of...

Factors Related to Tympanostomy Tube Otorrhea

The development of otorrhea after tympanostomy tube insertion is probably of multifactorial etiology. These factors can be considered to overlap those for otorrhea in chronic otitis media patients. Preoperatively recognizable patient characteristics and comorbidities, the surgeon's operative findings, the surgeon's operative choices, and the postoperative management may all influence the development of drainage through the tube. PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS, COMORBIDITIES, AND BEHAVIORS There is...

Hnc Qol Perspective Where Are We Going

The number of articles addressing QOL in the HNC literature should heighten the awareness of practitioners as to the importance of such considerations, although the current focus is largely still on the rather basic and incomplete aspect of functional status accompanying various cancer treatments. The mind-body-spirit connection is being addressed in the QOL literature at large, although such factors are still largely absent in the HNC literature. Several examples are included in this...

Trichloroacetic Acid Peels

TCA is perhaps the best single agent for skin resurfacing. It exhibits unique properties that afford the cosmetic surgeon tremendous flexibility and versatility in treating a variety of clinical conditions. When properly used, TCA has an overall decreased morbidity as compared with other agents. It allows patients to achieve a predictable result with the benefit of disrupting their lives to a lesser degree. Although TCA is the most popular and most widely used chemical peeling agent, proper...

Future Directions

Meticulous postoperative debridement and medical therapy are the best manner in which to achieve a successful objective and subjective outcome in the long-term. However, the cost-effectiveness of such a management strategy has never been demonstrated. Intuitively, avoidance of revision surgery with its associated costs and risks would seem advantageous. However, aggressive postoperative follow-up and the use of prolonged systemic steroid therapy and antibiotics are not without risk and cost. It...

Some Patient Concerns That Influence Satisfaction Dissatisfaction

independence Fear, anxiety, depression, anger, loneliness SOURCE Arrzouman JM, Dudiss S, Farance CE, et al. Quality of life of patients with sarcoma post-chemotherapy. Oncol Nurs Forum 1991 18 889-894. her destiny. There is increasing need to recognize that treatment decisions are not up to the physician rather, they are the patient's decision. Treatment managers often lose sight of this. A rapidly expanding new literature suggests that patient satisfaction may directly relate to the degree to...

General Approach to Facelift Surgery

In the senior author's practice, which spans a career in facelifting of 25 years, the biplane facelift has become the workhorse operation and is used for most patients. Newer innovations, including the use of laser dissection and the skin-sparing tech nique described later in this chapter, basically have not altered the approach that has been in use for more than 15 years. In patients who are seeking additional upper facial rejuvenation, the biplane facelift can easily be combined with either a...

Indications for UPPP in Snoring

UPPP is highly effective for the treatment of snoring. The suc cess rate of this technique has ranged from 76 to 94 , and, in most series, is greater than 90 .23 Although highly efficacious, UPPP is associated with considerable morbidity and thus is fre quently unacceptable to many patients. It requires a general anesthetic and hospital admission, often to the intensive care unit. Postoperative pain is moderate to intense and often unremitting for days in most cases, a narcotic is required for...

Stepwise Summary of Assessment Management and Management of Uncomplicated Chronic Pediatric Rhinosinusitis

Step 1 Thorough history and physical examination suggesting chronic rhinosinusitis Cardinal symptoms 18 chronic nasal congestion purulent nasal discharge, head, pain, cough, fetid breath, postnasal drainage, behavioral changes Boggy edematous turbinates with obstruction polyposis posterior pharyngeal cobbling postnasal discharge tender cervical adenopathy Symptom duration of 12 weeks or more Step 2 Evaluation for predisposing factors and concomitant diseases, with treatment of positive findings...

Future Research

The entire landscape of surgery for chronic otitis media will change significantly with new insights in restoration of normal eustachian tube function. In addition, most reconstructive procedures that are done in the middle ear are based more on intuition than scientific proof. Research in the area of middle ear mechanics and reconstruction34,35 is most welcome and will undoubtedly provide better methods of reconstruction in the future. 1. Smyth GDL. Postoperative cholesteatoma in combined...

Management of Inverting Papilloma

Intranasal approaches have been fraught with recurrences because these tumors are usually bulky, creating a difficult exposure. However, otolaryngologists have been gradually extending the indications for minimally invasive intranasal operations, including endoscopic techniques. Does endoscopic sinus surgery have the potential to lower the high recurrence rate associated with the intranasal approach to that of external techniques, on a consistent basis The only reason to change management...

TABLE 302 Glogau Classification

Mild pigmentary changes No keratoses Minimal wrinkles Patient age 20s or 30s Minimal or no makeup Minimal acne scarring Early to moderate photoaging Early senile lentigines visible Keratoses palpable but not visible Parallel smile lines beginning to appear Patient age late 30s or 40s Some foundation usually worn Mild acne scarring Obvious dyschromia, telangiectasias Visible keratoses Wrinkles present even when not moving Patient age 50s or older Acne scarring present makeup does not cover...

Factors Involved in Treatment Algorithm for Chronic Otitis Media

The initial evaluation of patients with chronic otitis media should include a thorough otologic and general medical history. The otologic history must include careful documentation of symptoms and previous treatment, both medical and surgical. The general medical history should include documentation of potential predisposing factors including upper respiratory allergy, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and possible immunologic compromise. Examination should include a thorough otologic and complete...

Info

Assessment and Management of the Unknown Primary with Neck Disease Suspicious areas of mucosa e.g., leukoplakia, erythroplasia, or mucosal irregularities seen on prior physical examination or on imaging studies should be biopsied. If no such lesions are seen, random biopsies should be performed on mucosal sites with the known highest probability of harboring a tumor i.e., nasopharynx, tonsil, tongue base, pyriform sinus. The routine use of CT or MRI for the purpose of attempting to identify a...

Bells Palsy

The clinical course of patients with Bell's palsy varies from rapid early complete recovery to a more debilitating course of permanent disfiguring facial nerve dysfunction. Fortunately, most Bell's palsies recover completely and spontaneously, with 85 of patients with Bell's palsies having a full or near full recovery. Those patients who have a complete paralysis persisting for 8 weeks are likely to develop sequelae. All patients, however, regain some function within 6 months and, if no motion...

Complications Of Plfs

Curiously, PLF-related complications are rarely, if ever, discussed in the literature. In addition to the comorbid conditions discussed above, there are three significant complications of PLFs Hearing loss, vestibular function loss, and meningitis. Hearing loss is a complication of a PLF and should never be regarded as either a primary consequence or inevitable result of PLF. Hearing loss complicating PLFs is a true otologic emergency. Sensorineural hearing loss indicates hair cell damage and...

Examples of Computed Tomography Staging Systems

Staging system proposed by Kennedy 0 Anatomic abnormalities, all unilateral sinus disease, bilateral disease limited to ethmoidal sinuses Bilateral ethmoidal disease with involvement of one dependent sinus Bilateral ethmoidal disease with involvement of two or more dependent sinuses on each side Staging system proposed by Gliklich and Metson Harvard System 4 0 Normal lt 2 cm mucosal thickening on any sinus wall 1 All unilateral disease or anatomic abnormality II Bilateral disease limited to...

Laser Resurfacing

Although laser physics was first described by Albert Einstein in 1917, laser technology did not appear until the 1960s. Only in recent times have the CO2 and erbium lasers found their way into the cosmetic surgeon's armamentarium as skin resurfacing tools. These high-energy lasers have revolutionized the treatment of photoaged skin. In contrast to other forms of skin resurfacing, laser resurfacing has captured the attention of many people worldwide. When referring to laser resurfacing, the...

Phenol Peels

Phenol represents the most common deep chemical peeling agent. It leads to dramatic results by producing a controlled chemical burn to the level of the upper reticular dermis. As healing occurs, new stratified collagen is laid down, resulting in younger-appearing skin. Phenol is an extremely effective agent for reversing facial wrinkling and irregular pigmentary changes related to sun exposure and the natural aging process. The most commonly used phenol preparation is the BakerGordon formula,...

Introduction to the Opportunistic Biplane Facelift

The biplane facelift described in this chapter is based on principles that increase aesthetics and longevity with limited morbidity. Facial aging is most pronounced from changes occurring in the deeper musculofascial plane that result in ptosis of the malar fat pad, jowl region, nasolabial folds, and neck. Precise elevation and rotation of this plane is accomplished using this biplane facelift technique. We call the operation opportunistic, because there is no set anatomic limit to the...

Classification of Perilymphatic Fistula

Pathologic Congenital Cholesteatomas Neoplasms particularly tumors of the mastoid or skull base Middle ear infections Mastoid infections Stapedectomy and stapedotomy Traumatic Implosive Barotrauma SCUBA diving Rapid descent in aircraft Acoustic trauma e.g., exposure to loud noise or explosions Explosive Head and neck trauma including whiplash Airbag trauma Conditions associated with sudden or sustained increases in intracranial or intrathoracic pressure e.g., heavy lifting, protracted or...

Laser Technique

Although beyond the primary scope of this chapter, it is worthwhile to briefly discuss our laser technique when combined with deep-plane facelifting. We classify our laser technique as moderately aggressive. Because settings vary from instrument to instrument, it is important to realize that wise surgeons will always start at low intensities until they are familiar with the effects of their unit. We use a Luxar CO2 laser. Before surgery, we mark the deepest lines of the patient. After prepping,...

Static Rehabilitation Procedures

A static sling procedure is generally indicated when the patient does not desire restoration of facial motion or is not medically fit to undergo a more extensive procedure under general anesthesia. Although static sling procedures do not restore facial motion, they do improve facial aesthetics for the patient by providing facial symmetry at rest and often will improve oral incompetence. Traditionally, a fascial graft, such as fascia lata from the thigh, is harvested and anchored from the...

Is Selective Neck Dissection Appropriate for the Treatment of the N0 Neck

It is generally accepted today that a radical neck dissection is not indicated for surgical treatment of the N0 neck.30 However, the preference between selective neck dissection and the modified radical neck dissection type III MRND-III , in which the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the internal jugular vein, and the spinal accessory nerve are preserved, remains controversial. Some surgeons, particularly in Europe, advocate this type of MRND as the treatment of choice for the NO neck, whereas in...