Classification of Perilymphatic Fistula

Pathologic Congenital Cholesteatomas

Neoplasms (particularly tumors of the mastoid or skull base) Middle ear infections Mastoid infections Stapedectomy and stapedotomy

Traumatic Implosive Barotrauma SCUBA diving Rapid descent in aircraft

Acoustic trauma (e.g., exposure to loud noise or explosions) Explosive

Head and neck trauma (including whiplash) Airbag trauma

Conditions associated with sudden or sustained increases in intracranial or intrathoracic pressure (e.g., heavy lifting, protracted or violent vomiting, childbirth, obstructive sleep apnea)

Spontaneous or unknown causes

Anatomic variants? (e.g., persistent aqueduct patentency or congenital defects?)

two level I regional trauma centers in our metropolitan area, one of which is located within our hospital system.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep Apnea

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