Facial paralysis is a devastating problem that significantly alters the quality of life for patients. Patients can be helped by a variety of static and dynamic procedures. The best outcome can only be achieved by systematically evaluating the patient and selecting the appropriate procedure(s) that are likely to work, that suit the needs of the patient, and that will not cause additional morbidity.


Shindo—CHAPTER 23

1. Spector JG, Lee P, Peterein J, et al. Facial nerve regeneration through autologous nerve grafts. A clinical and experimental Study. Laryngoscope 1991;101:537-554

2. May M, Sobol SM, Mester SJ. Hypoglossal-facial nerve inter-positional-jump graft for facial reanimation without tongue atrophy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1991;104:818-825

3. Green JD, Shelton C, Brackmann DE. Surgical management of iatrogenic facial nerve injuries. Otolaryng Head Neck Surg 1994;111:606-610

4. May M, Sobol SM, Mester SJ. Management of segmented facial nerve injuries by surgical repair. Laryngoscope 1990; 100:1062-1067

5. Stephanian E, Sekhar LN, Janecka IP, et al. Facial nerve repair by interposition nerve graft. Results in 22 patients. Neurosurgery 1992;31:73-76

6. O'Brien BM, Pederson WC, Khazanchi RK, et al. Results of management of facial palsy with microvascular free-muscle transfer. Plast Reconstr Surg 1990;86:12-22

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9. Coneley J. Cheiloplasty in the treatment of facial paralysis. Laryngoscope 1986;96:140-145

Static versus Dynamic Management of the Paralyzed Face

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