Heartwood Ebooks Catalog
Zambezi redwood is an attractive rich red-brown wood with black flecks or lines. The grain is usually straight or interlocked, however the variation of coloring within the heartwood gives the appearance of figuring. It has a fine, even texture and a smooth lustrous surface. Like oak, the tannin content in Zambezi redwood is high, making it liable to stain if in contact with iron in damp conditions.
This is the most important of a group of several species of trees from Malaysia and western China that produce oil similar to sandalwood oil, with the strongest oils coming from fungally infected heartwood. Agarwood has been used for thousands of years, especially for incense in eastern religious customs, and the high-grade wood is very valuable. Agarwood is mentioned in Tamil texts from the third century ad, in which a reference to an actress drying her hair over the smoke of agar-wood can be found, for example. The trees are now highly endangered and are included in Appendix Two of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) in order to allow control and monitoring of trade. Agarwood is possibly the aloe wood referred to in the Old Testament.
Aboudikro is a mahogany-type wood with a pinkish-yellow sapwood and light reddish-brown heartwood. It has an interlocked grain which, when quarter sawn, has striped or occasionally 'fiddle-back' figuring. This interlocked grain can and does cause distortion when drying. It works reasonably well with hand and machine tools, although the interlocked grain does have a blunting effect.
The wood has long been a favored timber for furniture, office desks, cabinets, shop fittings, and high quality joinery for staircases, banisters, handrails, and paneling. It is a popular timber for boat manufacture, being light and moderately durable. Today some logs are rotary-cut to make high-quality plywood. This and other species in the genus are severely threatened by overharvest-ing. African mahoganies became popular in the 19th century as supplies of genuine, American mahogany declined.
European Ash (F. excelsior) is white with a pink tint when first cut. Occasionally, dark brown heartwood may occur this is marketed separately as Olive Ash. Ash is a ring-porous wood with a conspicuous grain pattern on plain-sawn surfaces. It is straight-grained with a coarse texture. Ash dries rapidly with little degradation or shrinkage and is a strong wood with excellent shock resistance qualities. It works well with hand and machine tools, bends well under steam and can be brought to a good finish. It is not naturally durable, so is unsuitable for outside use unless treated.
Although called 'blackwood', the sapwood is a golden color giving way to a dark brown heart-wood. It is generally straight-grained but, where it becomes wavy, it produces a fine 'fiddleback' figure. It is even-textured with a high natural luster, giving it a decorative appearance.
Balsa is a very fast growing tree, easily reaching a height of 65 feet (20 m) in 15 years. Commercial balsa wood is the sapwood rather than the heartwood. This sapwood is a creamy-white color, often with a pinkish tinge. It is a very difficult timber to dry as it splits and warps easily, but once dry, it can be worked well to a smooth finish.
Beech grows extensively in northern temperate woods across North America, Europe, and western Asia. In Britain, beech timber is used in larger quantities than any other hardwood. The timber is white to pale pinkish-fawn in coloring. It is straight-grained, with a fine, even texture and an attractive brown fleck radiating out from the center of the tree to the bark when quarter-sawn. Beech dries quickly, but tends to distort in the process. Once dry, it is not particularly stable, moving quite substantially in changing humidity levels. It works easily with both hand and machine tools and can be steam-bent to great effect. The heartwood is perishable, making it unsuitable for outdoor use, however it does readily absorb preservative. Beech is an excellent general purpose, interior furniture timber and is used for school desks, chairs, cabinets, and bookcases. It is also a good turnery wood, being made into tool and brush handles, toys, brush backs, bobbins, kitchen utensils, and cutting...
Paper birch Betula papyrifera Usdanrcs Plants Database Herman DE et al 1996 North Dakota tree handbook Usda Nrcs Nd
Are fairly dense, with good strength properties comparing well with ash for toughness. The wood works well with both hand and machine tools and is excellent for turnery. Birch has traditionally been used to produce bobbins, shuttles, dowels and spools for the textiles industry. Because of its high strength properties it makes excellent quality, structural plywood. The British Mosquito fighter bomber planes of World War II were built of birch ply. Selected logs are peeled for decorative veneers and small roundwood is predominantly used as pulp for paper-making.
The name 'brazil' has been used since the Middle Ages to describe plants that produce red dye. When the Portuguese colonized South America in the 16th century, they discovered a small tree which also produced red dye. They called this tree 'brazilwood' and named the land where they found it 'Brazil'. Harvesting from 1501 to the 1870s severely affected populations, and only a few natural stands survive, on the coastal plain. Brazilwood is a small tree with white sapwood and heartwood that turns from rich orange when freshly cut, to deep red as it matures. It has a fine, even texture with natural luster and a distinctive figuring of dark red-brown variegated stripes.
Alder makes good plywood, but the small size of the trees means the wood is mainly used in small-scale industry and for domestic purposes such as broom handles, brush backs and wooden toys. It has been used since medieval times for clog making, and charcoal for gunpowder-making. It has also been used for the manufacture of artificial limbs. The wood becomes very durable when immersed in water, and has been widely used as water-front piles and as foundations, including in Venice and under many medieval cathedrals.
The name ebony encompasses all Diospyros species with black heartwood. They occur from tropical Africa and Madagascar through to India and Sri Lanka. The tree itself tends to be rather small, seldom achieving diameters in excess of 2 feet (0.6 m). Most larger trees have been logged, and the species is threatened in several African countries. Diospyros crassiflora, a lowland rainforest species, has the darkest heartwood, contrasting starkly with its creamy-white sapwood which is referred to as 'white ebony'. Timber from all species is usually straight-grained with a fine, even texture and extremely heavy. All ebony timber has to be dried slowly to avoid surface checking. Once dry, the wood is very stable, with good strength properties.
Elm occurs naturally throughout northern temperate regions of Europe, North America, continental Asia, and Japan. Eighteen species grow in different regions, but the characteristics of the wood are broadly similar. The heartwood is dull brown, sometimes with a reddish tinge, and has prominent, irregular growth rings and crossed grain which gives the wood a distinctive and attractive figuring. Elm dries readily, but care needs to be taken because it is prone to severe distortion because of the irregular growth pattern. Once dry, it works reasonably well. Although not a particularly strong wood, it is very durable in waterlogged conditions. As far back as Roman times, it has been used as a conduit for water (the heartwood is bored out to create a basic drainpipe). The 'Rialto' in Venice stands on elm piles. Elm is used for ship building, weather-boarding, ladder rungs, and coffins. Its decorative appearance has meant that it has long been used for cabinet making, the seats of Windsor...
The timber is pale creamy-pink in coloring with a high natural luster. It has an interlocked grain and a rather coarse texture. Gmelina dries well, with little degradation and is stable in use. It saws easily and can be polished to a good finish. Despite its rapid growth rate, gmelina is strong and dense enough to be used for construction, general joinery, and furniture. As more plantations reach harvestable size, gmelina is being used more and more for pulp for paper-making and as a plywood timber.
Greenheart is the major commercial timber of Guyana in South America. It is an evergreen tree which can grow to a height of 130 feet (40 m). It has a pale cream sapwood which gradually changes to a yellow-green or olive-brown heartwood, sometimes with black markings. It is a fine, uniformed,
There are over twenty species of Carya, all native to North America, but only four of these are harvested commercially for their timber, namely C. glabra, C. laciniosa, C. ovata, and C. tomentosa. All are medium to large trees with dense, coarse-textured, creamy-gray sapwood and red-brown heart-wood. Although difficult to dry, hickory is very stable in service. Its main attribute is its ability to withstand crushing and impact forces. This makes hickory ideal for the handles of striking tools such as picks and axe handles and sledgehammer handles for which it is the white sapwood which is favored. It is also extensively used for sports equipment such as tennis rackets, skis, golf clubs, baseball bats, and lacrosse sticks.
It has a uniform, dull white sapwood and heartwood with an irregular grain which is normally due to its fluted and frequently misshapen trunk. Hornbeam dries quickly and well, with little degradation, but it moves considerably under conditions of changing humidity. It is a heavy, dense wood, resistant to splitting but fairly difficult to work, having a blunting effect on both machine and hand tools. When used in turnery, hornbeam can produce a smooth, fine finish. Before environmental health requirements stipulated that food preparation had to take place on impervious surfaces, hornbeam was used extensively for butcher's blocks. Today it is used for drum sticks, snooker cues, skittles, mallets, and wooden pegs. Prior to the introduction of lignum vitae (Guaiacum officinale) in the 16th century, hornbeam was used for cogs, pulleys and bowls.
Depending on the species, the heartwood varies in color from light to dark brown. They are all generally straight-grained with a coarse but open texture and rather plain appearance. Several species exude a sticky resin which is a source of an essential oil, gurjun balsam, used in perfumery as a substitute for patchouli oil from Pogostemon cablin. The density of the wood varies with species. They are all quite difficult to dry without causing splitting or cracking and even when dry, are not very stable in use. Strength qualities are also not exceptional but because of their commercial availability and reasonable cost, keruing, gurjun, and yang are used extensively for building work. They are particularly useful for cladding, window frames, and sills. Selected logs are rotary-cut for plywood and veneers.
The wood is pale pink to red in coloring with coarse texture and an interlocked grain which produces darker stripes on quarter-sawn surfaces. It is a light wood which dries rapidly without serious degradation. It can be worked easily with both hand and machine tools and produces a good finish. Maranti is used for light structural work, interior joinery, domestic flooring, and basic furniture. It is also sliced for plywood and peeled for decorative veneers for paneling.
White oak typically has a creamy-fawn sapwood and yellow-brown heartwood. It is a coarse-textured wood, normally straight-grained with a characteristic silvery-gray figuring when quarter-sawn. White oak is without doubt one of the world's most popular timbers and has been so for centuries. In Britain, it was used to build the ships of the British Royal Navy for over four hundred years, hence the saying and song Hearts of oak. Because it is strong but easy to cleave, oak was used as the main structural building material for barns, dwellings, and cathedrals throughout Europe.
Poplar is a fast-growing deciduous tree, in some cases reaching 100 feet (33 m) tall. The heart-wood is creamy-white to pale straw-colored. It is generally straight-grained with a fine, even texture. It is a light wood which dries readily with little cracking or splitting and is worked easily with hand or machine tools. Although not strong, poplar is tough for its weight and has been an important commercial timber for many years. Selected grades are used for interior joinery, furniture frames, toys, and turnery. At one time, vast quantities of poplar wood were used to make matches and match-boxes. This market has declined dramatically over the last thirty years mainly due to the demise of domestic open fires. Today, poplar is widely used to make crates, boxes, and pallets. It also peels to give a good veneer used for fruit baskets and general purpose plywood. In the 15th-16th centuries, poplar was used in England for arrow shafts, as well as wagon and cart bottoms. In the Near East...
This medium-sized tree grows widely in freshwater swamps in Sarawak, Malaysia, and Southeast Asia. The low rate of regeneration in over-exploited forests is a cause for concern. Both sapwood and heartwood are of a creamy-white to pale yellow color. It is generally straight-grained with a fine, even texture, but discolors quickly and needs to be treated immediately after sawing. It dries easily, but tends to split if dried too quickly. It works well with machine and hand tools and finishes well. Ramin is widely used as a substitute for beech in furniture making. Although a little lighter than beech, its strength compares favorably and, like beech, it is not suitable for external use. Ramin is also extensively used for picture frames, toys, and louver doors. It is used for light construction work and domestic flooring. Selected logs are rotary cut for plywood.
Rosewood has creamy-white sapwood which contrasts dramatically with deep chocolate-brown to purple-black heartwood. True Brazilian rosewood (D. nigra) is strongly figured, not so with rosewood from India and Honduras (Indian rosewood D. latifolia) which has a pinkish hue and much finer figuring. The grain in both wild and cultivated supplies is straight to wavy with a coarse texture which is oily to the touch.
Santalum album is a small parasitic tree, which lives on the roots of other trees. When it is harvested, every piece is removed, including that growing below ground. The wood, which is a pale yellow-brown color, has a very fine, even texture and a straight or irregular grain. It is a dense, heavy wood and, once cut, gives off a strong aroma and has a slightly oily feel. Sandalwood dries slowly but does not degrade. Once dry it can be sawn and worked easily. Heartwood chips and shavings are distilled to produce sandalwood oil which is used throughout the world for perfume. The timber itself is an excellent carving wood and can be worked to very fine detail. Decorative knife-handles, picture frames, and carvings made from sandalwood are sold to tourists throughout Asia.
The heartwood is pale brown, resembling oak, and has prominent growth rings and fine rays. Chestnut frequently has a spiral grain and, as a large tree, has a tendency to be badly shaken, causing it to split when felled. Although lighter than oak, it does not dry well, tending to collapse and warp, but its natural durability makes it an ideal timber for outside use. For centuries, chestnut has been grown as coppice, the resulting poles being cleaved and made into fencing pales. Furniture and coffin boards are frequently made out of chestnut as a substitute for oak.
Tasmanian oak grows in south eastern Australia from New South Wales to Tasmania. The timber bears a slight resemblance to European oak with a heartwood color which varies from pale fawn to light pinkish-brown. However, it lacks any silvery grain and does not have the tiny pinhole-like hollows in the growth ring, as does true oak. The wood is usually straight-grained, coarse-textured with a slight natural luster. It dries readily but quite often develops surface checks and suffers some shrinkage and distortion.
Teak grows naturally in Burma, India, Thailand, Indonesia, and Java. It is widely cultivated there, and has also been introduced into Central America and tropical Africa as a commercial crop. It is a large tree which can reach 150 feet (45 m) in height and a diameter of 8 feet (2.4 m). The sapwood is a pale yellow color and the heartwood a rich dark brown. It has straight grain with a rough, uneven texture and feels oily to the touch. Trade in teak is large-scale and dominated by Burma, India, Thailand, and Indonesia. Teak harvesting from the wild is restricted in many countries and this, combined with cultivation, means that teak is not endangered.
Of the fifteen species of walnut, two are important timber-producing trees, J. nigra (the American walnut) and J. regia (the European walnut). European walnut is native to the Black Sea and Caspian region, but spread early to the Mediterranean. Although grown in Britain by the Romans, it appears not to have become widespread there until the Medieval period. Both species are big trees attaining heights of up to 100 feet (33 m), and have rich brown heartwood with a natural wavy grain which produces very decorative figuring. The wood needs to be dried carefully to avoid splitting and degradation, but once dry there is little movement in service. It is easy to work and can be polished to a superb finish.
This softwood is not a true fir, nor a true pine, although in the USA it is known as 'Columbian' or 'Oregon' pine. It is closely related to spruce and occurs naturally in northwest America but has been introduced as a timber species to many other countries including Britain, Australia, and New Zealand. It is a large tree, regularly attaining heights in excess of 150 feet (50 m). The heartwood is a rich, reddish-brown with slightly paler sapwood. There is a prominent growth ring figure on plain-sawn surfaces and rotary-cut veneers. It dries well with little movement and is very stable in service. Because of its strength, it is favored for large-scale construction work, roof trusses, beams, interior and exterior joinery, flooring, and decking. Other uses include shipbuilding, railway sleepers, and vats and tanks for breweries, distilleries and chemical plants. Douglas fir is one of the largest sources for plywood in the world.
Yew grows naturally from Britain, through Europe and North Africa, to the Himalayas and Burma. It is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree with a short, fluted trunk. The heartwood is one of the most attractive of all timbers. It varies in color from orange-brown to purple-brown and has an irregular growth pattern which helps to produce a superb decorative appearance. Yew is one of the heaviest, strongest, and naturally durable softwood timbers. It dries quickly and well, with little distortion and can be steam bent. For many centuries, yew was favored for archer's bows, especially the English Long Bow. The bow found with the Otztal Ice Man in the Tyrolean Alps, dating to 3200 14C years bc, was made of yew.
Nine different species of larch grow naturally from North America and Canada, through parts of Europe to Siberia and Japan. Elsewhere it has been widely planted within commercial softwood plantations. Larch is unusual amongst softwoods as it is a deciduous conifer. The heartwood color varies from pale pink to red-brown with very distinctive darker growth rings. It has straight grain and fine texture. Larch dries well with little distortion and is stable in service. It has good natural durability, takes preservatives well and hence is used extensively for boat building, transmission poles, bridge construction, fencing panels, and other exterior construction. Selected logs are also rotary cut to provide ornamental veneers. The Romans used larch for bridges and boat-building.
Parana pine is a very attractive, honey-colored wood. It is straight-grained with a fine, uniform texture and little annual growth-ring distinction. Its weight varies considerably, depending on where it has been growing (perhaps due to differing water balances). However, regardless of weight, it is a very difficult wood to dry without splitting. If it is not well dried, movement in service can be considerable. Parana pine is Brazil's major timber export. It has become one of the most common woods available from Do It Yourself stores across the world and is an excellent timber for interior joinery, especially staircases, because of the large sizes available and lack of knots. It is also used for a good quality plywood.
Pinus sylvestris occurs right across Europe from Britain to Siberia. It is also known as European redwood because of its pale red-brown heartwood which contrasts markedly with its creamy-white sapwood. It is one of the heaviest softwoods and is a fairly coarse, knotty wood with clearly marked annual growth rings. It dries rapidly and well and is stable in use however, it is prone to a fungal disease called 'bluestain' in the drying process. The wood is graded for specific uses, the best grade being used for interior joinery and furniture and the other grades used for general building work, boxes, pallets, and crates. It will take preservative treatment and is then suitable for railway sleepers and telegraph poles. Selected logs are used for plywood and decorative veneers. Demand for Scots pine was so great in medieval Britain that trees were being imported from the 13 th century onwards. Other species of pine were widely used for shipbuilding and construction in the ancient...
Spruce wood is not durable and it is only the sapwood which takes preservatives well. Norway spruce was introduced to Britain ca. 1500, and since the mid-19th century, has been its traditional Christmas tree Sitka is far too sharp-needled for this purpose. Both are widely used for interior building work, general joinery, boxes, and crates and provide excellent tone-woods for keyboard instrument soundboards and for guitar and violin casings. Sitka produces the vast majority of the world's virgin pulp supply for newsprint.
Due to its strength qualities, it is an important commercial timber and a valuable export for North America. It is used for general building construction, joists, rafters, and both interior and exterior joinery. Western hemlock is widely used for packing cases, crates, and pallets. It is also sliced for decorative veneers for plywood and paneling.
This large tree, native to North America, is one of the most durable softwoods of all. It has a creamy white sapwood which contrasts dramatically with the heartwood which can vary from dark chocolate-brown to shrimp-pink. It is straight-grained with prominent growth rings. Western red Hora, B. 1981. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Trees of the World. Oxford Oxford University Press. Hough, R.B. 2002. The Wood Book Repreint of The American Woods (1888-1913), 1928. London Taschen. Johnson, H. 1976. The International Book of Wood. London Mitchell Beazley and New York Simon and Schuster. Latham, B. 1957. Timber A Historical Survey of Its Development and Distribution. London Harrap. Meiggs, R. 1982. Trees and Timber in the Ancient Mediterranean World. Oxford, UK Clarendon Press. Sentence, B. 2003. Wood The World of Woodworking and Carving. London Thames and Hudson.
Why a female strategy should predominant over a male strategy is not known. One possibility is that this is a system that arises when the key resources are largely produced by females. Anthropologists in Africa noted that matrilineal descent was most common in farming and horticultural societies, which are usually heavily dependent on women's labour. It is also interesting to note that matrifocal (if not matrilineal) family structures, with weak or non-existent marriage, are frequently observed outside Africa where male earning power is limited. Some Caribbean cultures provide examples of this. A former Minister of State for Wales (John Redwood) was famously horrified when observing a similar family structure during a visit to a Welsh housing estate where male unemployment was very high and state benefits to mothers were one of the main sources of income.
The wood has pale yellow sapwood and deep brown heartwood with light fawn flecks radiating out from the center of the wood to the bark, when quarter-sawn. The grain is quite often interlocked and irregular. Generally, the wood works well with both machine and hand tools, although occasional calcium deposits known as 'stone' can damage the cutting teeth of saws. Iroko is extremely durable and is widely used in ship building, piling, marine work, and garden furniture. It is also a favorite wood for sculpture, wood-carving, and parquet flooring.
The Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) is the most used model in classification problems it is an artificial neural network with a topology where each neuron output is connected to every neuron in subsequent layers, connected in cascade with no feedback connections or connections between neurons in the same layer. Such an approach has been used in several industrial applications reported by many authors. Some examples are automatic wood surface inspection (Lampinen et al., 1998), speed control of DC motors (Rubaai and Kotaru, 2000 Venayagamoorthy and Harley, 1999), diagnostics of induction motor faults (Chow et al., 1991, 1993 Filippetti et al., 1995, 2000), induction motor control (Burton and Harley, 1998 Burton et al., 1995 Huang et al., 1999 Wishart and Harley, 1995), and current regulator for pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) rectifiers (Cichowlas et al., 2000). Maintenance and sensor failure detection was reported by Naidu et al. (1990), check valves operating in a nuclear power plant...
Redwood Shores, California 94065 (650) 506-7000 http www.oracle.com Their product, Darwin, utilizes parallel computing to rapidly deliver results. Darwin was originally developed by Thinking Machines Corp., which was acquired by Oracle in 1999. This software runs on most platforms, including high-end mainframes and personal computers. Various algorithms available in this software include decision tree, regression, genetic, neural net, and visualization. Oracle Corp. is considered one of the world's largest suppliers of database systems.
The Philippine Plant Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) is undertaking conservation of the Philippine teak (Tectona philippinensis), an endemic and threatened tree species found along highly disturbed forest edges on limestone along the seashores of Batangas and in Iling Island, Mindoro. This tree produces hardwood used by the local people for house construction, furniture, and high-quality firewood. The species is currently threatened by habitat destruction, overcollection, and by occasional fires. Moreover, immature teak trees are preferred for building material, thus threatening the reproductive capacity of the population. This project, funded partly by Flora and Fauna International under the Flagship Species project, and the Philippines National Museum, started in 2001 and will continue for two years. A conservation program is being proposed to ensure the reestablishment of a stable natural population, and includes setting up long-term ecological...
Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman
THIS book is one of the series of Handbooks on industrial subjects being published by the Popular Mechanics Company. Like Popular Mechanics Magazine, and like the other books in this series, it is written so you can understand it. The purpose of Popular Mechanics Handbooks is to supply a growing demand for high-class, up-to-date and accurate text-books, suitable for home study as well as for class use, on all mechanical subjects. The textand illustrations, in each instance, have been prepared expressly for this series by well known experts, and revised by the editor of Popular Mechanics.