Elevated Eosinophil and Basophil Counts

Reactive Bronchial Cells

In accordance with their physiological role, an increase in eosinophils gt 400 1, i.e. for a leukocyte count of 6000, more than 8 in the differential blood analysis is usually due to parasitic attack p. 5 . In the Western hemisphere, parasitic infestations are investigated on the basis of stool samples and serology. Strongyloides stercoralis in particular causes strong, sometimes extreme, elevation of eosinophils may be up to 50 . However, eosinophilia of variable degree is also seen in ameba...

Reactive Lymphocytosis

Lymphocytes Blasts

Lymphatic cells show wide variability and transform easily. This is usually seen as enlarged nuclei, a moderately loose, coarse chromatin structure, and a marked widening of the basophilic cytoplasmic layer. Clinical findings, which include acute fever symptoms, enlarged lymph nodes, and sometimes exanthema, help to identify a lymphatic reactive state. Unlike the case in acute leukemias, erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts are not significantly reduced. Although the granulocyte count is...

The Individual Cells of Hematopoiesis

Promyelocytes Myelocytes Metamyelocytes

Immature Red Cell Precursors Proerythroblasts and Basophilic Erythroblasts Proerythroblasts are the earliest, least mature cells in the erythrocyte-forming series erythropoiesis . Proerythroblasts are characterized by their size about 20 m , and by having a very dense nuclear structure with a narrow layer of cytoplasm, homogeneous in appearance, with a lighter zone at the center they stain deep blue after Romanowsky staining. These attributes allow proerythroblasts to be distinguished from...

Steps in the Diagnosis of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Cml Myelocyte

Left-shift leukocytosis in conjunction with usually low-grade anemia, thrombocytopenia or thrombocytosis which often correlates with the migration of small megakaryocyte nuclei into the blood stream , and clinical splenomegaly is typical of CML. LDH and uric acid concentrations are elevated as a result of the increased cell turnover. The average typical cell composition is as follows in a series analyzed by Spiers about 2 myeloblasts, 3 promyelocytes, 24 myelocytes, 8 metamyelocytes, 57 band...

Bone Marrow Cell Composition and Principles of Analysis

Mice Bone Marrow Smears

As indicated above, and as will be shown below, almost all disorders of the hematopoietic system can be diagnosed using clinical findings, blood analysis, and humoral data. There is no mystery about bone marrow diagnostics. The basic categories are summarized here to give an understanding of how specific diagnostic information is achieved photomicrographs will show the appearance of specific diseases. Once the individual cell types, as given in the preceding pages, are recognized, it becomes...

Thrombocytopenias Due to Reduced Cell Production

Causes Thrombocytopenia Adults

In this condition, blood contains few, usually small, pyknotic old thrombocytes. Only a very few megakaryocytes are found in the bone marrow, and these have a normal appearance. Chronic alcoholism. There may be some overlap with increased turnover and folic acid deficiency. Chemical and radiological noxae. Cytostatics naturally lead directly to a dose-dependent reduction in megakaryocyte counts. A large therapeutic radiation burden in the area of blood-producing bone marrow has the same result,...

Relative Lymphocytosis Associated with Granulocytopenia Neutropenia and Agranulocytosis

Agranulocytosis

Neutropenia is defined by a decrease in the number of neutrophilic granulocytes with segmented nuclei to less than 1500 1 1.5 x 109 l . A neutrophil count of less than 500 l 0.5 x 109 l constitutes agranulocytosis. Absolute granulocytopenias with benign cause develop into relative lymphocytoses. In the most common clinical picture, drug-induced acute agranulocytosis, the bone marrow is either poor in cells or lacks granulopoietic precursor cells aplastic state , or shows a maturation block at...

Diseases of the Lymphatic System Non Hodgkin Lymphomas

Gumprecht Shadows

Malignant diseases of the lymphatic system are further classified as Hodg-kin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas NHL . NHL will be discussed here because most NHLs can be diagnosed on the blood analysis. gt Non-Hodgkin lymphomas arise mostly from small or blastic B-cells. gt Small-cell NHL cells are usually leukemic and relatively indolent, of the type of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and its variants. gt Blastic NHL precursor lymphoma is not usually leukemic. An exception is the lymphoblastic lymphoma,...