* Special thanks to Dr. T. Binder, Wuppertal, for the generous gift of several preparations.
In this guide to morphology, only a basic indication can be given of the materials that may be drawn upon for a cytological diagnosis and what basic kinds of information cytology is able to give.
For specialized cytological organ diagnostics, the reader should refer to a suitable cytology atlas. Often appropriately prepared samples are often sent away to a hematological-cytological or a pathoanatomic laboratory for analysis. Thus, the images in this chapter are intended particularly to help the clinician understand the interpretation of samples that he or she has not investigated in person.
In principle, all parenchymatous organs can be accessed for material for cytological analysis. Of particular importance are thyroid biopsy (especially in the region of scintigraphically "cold" nodules), liver and spleen biopsy (under laparascopic guidance) in the region of lumps lying close to the surface, and breast and prostate biopsy. Again, the cytological analysis is usually made by a specialist cytologist or pathologist.
Lymph node cytology, effusion cytology (pleura, ascites), cerebrospinal fluid cytology, and bronchial lavage are usually the responsibility of the internist with a special interest in morphology and are closely related to hemato-oncology.
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