Monocytosis

If mononuclear cells stand out in showing an unusually elaborate nuclear structure with ridges and lobes and a wider cytoplasmic layer with very delicate granules (for characteristics see p. 46, for cell function, see p. 6), and this is in the context of relative (> 10%) or absolute monocytosis (cell count > 900/^l), a series of possible triggers must be considered (Table 12). If the morphology does not clearly identify the cells as monocytes, then esterase assays should be done in a hematological laboratory using unstained smears.

Table 12 Possible causes of monocytosis

Infection

Nonspecific monocytosis occurs in many bacterial infections during recuperation from or in the chronic phase of:

- Mononucleosis (aside from stimulated lymphocytes there are also monocytes)

- Listeriosis

- Acute viral hepatitis

- Parotitis epidemica (mumps)

- Chickenpox

- Recurrent fever

- Syphilis

- Tuberculosis

- Endocarditis lenta

- Brucellosis (Bang disease)

- Variola vera (smallpox)

- Rocky mountain spotted fever

- Malaria

- Paratyphoid fever

- Kala-azar

- Thypus fever

- Trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness)

Chronic reactive condition of the immune system, e. g., in:

- Autoimmune diseases

- Chronic dermatoses

- Regional ileitis

- Sarcoidosis

Paraneoplasm

- Large solid tumors

- Lymphogranulomatosis

Neoplasm

- Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML, p. 107)

- Acute monocytic leukemia (p. 100)

- Acute myelomonocytic leukemia (p. 98)

Autoimmune Endocarditis Lenta

Fig. 30 Reactive monocytosis and monocytic leukemia. a Reactive and neoplastic monocytes are morphologically indistinguishable; here two relatively condensed monocytes in reactive monocytosis are shown. b Whenever monocytes are found exclusively, a malignant etiology is likely: in this case AML M5b according to the FAB classification (see p. 100). Auer bodies (arrow). c Monocytes of different degrees of maturity, segmented neutrophilic granulocytes (1), and a small myeloblast (2) in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML, see p. 107).

Fig. 30 Reactive monocytosis and monocytic leukemia. a Reactive and neoplastic monocytes are morphologically indistinguishable; here two relatively condensed monocytes in reactive monocytosis are shown. b Whenever monocytes are found exclusively, a malignant etiology is likely: in this case AML M5b according to the FAB classification (see p. 100). Auer bodies (arrow). c Monocytes of different degrees of maturity, segmented neutrophilic granulocytes (1), and a small myeloblast (2) in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML, see p. 107).

How To Win Your War Against Allergies

How To Win Your War Against Allergies

Not Able To Lead A Happy Life Because Of Excessive Allergies? Want To Badly Get Rid Of Your Allergy Problems, But Are Super Confused And Not Sure Where To Even Start? Don't Worry, Help Is Just Around The Corner Revealed The All-In-One Power Packed Manual Containing Ample Strategies And Little-Known Tips To Get Rid Of Any Allergy Problems That Are Ruining Your Life Learn How You Can Eliminate Allergies Completely Reclaim Your Life Once Again

Get My Free Ebook


Responses

  • Anna-Liisa
    What re the diseases cause relative monocytosis?
    4 years ago

Post a comment