The scientific data used to develop Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) have come from observational and experimental studies. Studies published in peer-reviewed journals were the principal source of data. Life stage and gender were considered to the extent possible, but the data did not provide a basis for proposing different requirements for men and for nonpregnant and nonlactating women in different age groups for many of the micronutrients. Two of the categories of reference values—the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) — are defined by specific criteria of nutrient adequacy; the third, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), is defined by a specific end-point of adverse effect, when one is available. In all cases, data were examined closely to determine whether a functional endpoint could
Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Niclccl, Silicon, Vanadium, and
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