Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Course
To those who acquired their anatomical knowledge of the skeleton with the aid of clean, dried bone specimens or a plastic mannequin it may appear as a mere inert weight-bearing scaffold of the human body. However, like all other organs, bone constantly undergoes remodeling and tubulation through the physiological and metabolic activities of osteoblasts and osteo-clasts. The principal role played by these bone cells is the maintenance of bone integrity and calcium homeostasis by balancing between the ratio of bone collagen production and resorp- Fig. 1.1 One of the first radiographs of living human skeleton anatomist Kolliker's hand, by Professor R ntgen in January 1896 at W rzburg University Fig. 1.1 One of the first radiographs of living human skeleton anatomist Kolliker's hand, by Professor R ntgen in January 1896 at W rzburg University
The tissue distribution of a drug can be affected by transporters because they lie on either the luminal or abluminal membranes of the endothelial cells of the tissue blood vessels, or on the membranes of the specific cells of the underlying organ. The transporters on the membranes of the blood vessels may be several key physiological components of the blood barriers throughout the human body if tight junctions seal adjacent cells and prevent the paracellular exchange of solutes. In contrast, solutes can freely communicate between extracellular spaces when blood vessels are fenestrated, as in the liver sinusoids, and transporters on the plasma membranes of the tissue cells (e.g., the
The second mathematical modeling approach reformulated the equilibrium conditions in terms of linear or nonlinear programming problems. The key motivation was that there may be a cost (objective) function that could be minimized while satisfying the equilibrium conditions (equality constraints) and keeping the muscle forces greater than zero and less than some maximum forces corresponding to the maximum allowable stress in the muscles (inequality constraints). Various linear and nonlinear cost functions have been used, such as compression, shear reaction forces, and sum of muscle stresses to different powers. Parnianpour et al. 147 investigated the effects of cost functions and the anatomical models utilized in equilibrium-based optimization models on the estimated joint reaction forces and maximum strength at upright posture. To test the effect of anatomical databases used in the prevalent biomechanical models, we selected the following six models from the literature (1) Hughes et...
In a lumped parameter model (Fig. 6.1), the highly complex structure of the coronary circulation is reduced to only a few compartments, each of which typically represents an entire class of vessels, such as arteries, capillaries or veins, without any possibility to further differentiate spatially within the compartment (e.g., 1-3). Anatomical models comprising a few dozen segments are based on morphometric parameters, such as lengths and radii of vessel segments. In this approach, the real branching geometry is implemented to specifically represent a certain
An alternative data source for the macroscopic modeling of human anatomy provides the Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine, The Visible Human Project forms a base of the MEET Man Project (Models for Simulation of Electromagnetic, Elastomechanic and Thermic Behavior of Man) of the Institut f r Biomedizinische Technik, Universitat Karlsruhe (TH) 26, 132 . The project aims at the generation of anatomical and physical models of the human body suitable for numerical calculation of physical fields. A focus of the MEET Man project is the computerized reconstruction of the anatomy, electrophysiology and mechanics of the human heart.
Although no experimental study can ever completely mimic a clinical situation, we believe that our model of acute coronary occlusion in the pig with subsequent reperfusion closely simulates the events that occur following a failed PTCA leading to CABG surgery. The coronary anatomy of the pig has less collateral flow than in dogs and sheep and more closely mimics human anatomy. Infarct size following a coronary occlusion in the pig is greater than in the dog. Hence, interventions which significantly reduce infarct size in the pig will undoubtedly have an important role in clinical practice. In our studies, the occlusion of the second and third diagonal vessels just distal to the takeoff of the LAD has consistently resulted in an area of risk of approximately 10-11 . While this may seem like a relatively small area, one must remember that in patients with triple vessel disease, the presence of collateral flow probably limits the actual amount of ventricular tissue which is at risk for...
Essentials of Human Physiology
This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.