Alcohol Abuse and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS

Epidemiology: 20% of pregnant women consume alcohol; 1-2% consume >4 drinks/day; FAS = >2-3 ounces of ethanol/day (4-6 drinks/ day) or with frequent binge drinking. Mechanism of FAS: Craniofacial dysmorpho-genesis = early teratogenesis; mental retardation and cortical defects occur later in gestation. FAS: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), microcephaly, epicanthal folds, short palpebral fissures, cleft palate, short philtrum — maxillary hypoplasia, micrognathia, mental retardation.

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