Amphetamines

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Only ones that can be reported: methamphet-amine and amphetamine.

Amphetamine is a metabolite of methamphetamine.

Excretion is pH dependent, an acidic urine enhances excretion.

In U.S., methamphetamine generally represents the abused form of the drug. In Europe, amphetamine is more commonly abused. Methamphetamine routes of administration: injection, snorting, smoking ("ice"), and oral. Both still used therapeutically.

Barbiturates: Urine positives almost always butalbital and phenobarbital. Benzodiazepines: Oxazepam common metabolite of several; most labs focus on this one metabolite. Gas chromatography/mass spec-trometry methods not in common use for several "newer" benzodiazepines, including alprazolam. Xanax® (Alprazolam) most commonly prescribed one today. Methadone and methaqualone: Very few (if any) positives.

Other drugs not a real issue in the workplace. Specific "workplaces" have their own problems (e.g., athletics-anabolic steroids, anesthesiolgists—fentanyls).

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