Gyromitrin MMH Toxicity

Representative genus: Gyromitra species. Toxin: Gyromitrin, a monomethylhydrazine B6/ GABA inhibitor.

Antidote: B6 or pyridoxine, 25 mg/kg IV.

Representative genus: Coprinus species. Toxin: Coprine. Antidote: None specific.

Diagnosis: Onset 0.5-2 hours; disulfiram — reaction following ingestion of alcohol with facial flushing, nausea and vomiting, tachycardia, hypertension. Treatment: Supportive, IV fluids.

Ibotenic Acid — Muscimol

Representative genus: Amanita muscaria, A. pantherina, A. gemmata. Toxins: Ibotenic acid and its primary metabolite, muscimol, a GABA-nergic glutamic acid analog.

Antidote: None specific; benzodiazepines for convulsions.

Diagnosis: Onset 0.5-2 hours; vertigo, somnolence, delirium, hallucinations; myoclonus and seizures in children. Treatment: Anticonvulsants (BZs).

Intense yellow-orange cap; no odor

Cap surface wipes off easily onto fingers; no odor

Intense yellow-orange cap; no odor

Cap surface wipes off easily onto fingers; no odor

Gyromitra Esculenta (Conifer False Morel)

Amanita Smithiana (Smith's Amanita)

Omphalotus Olearius (Jack O'Lantern)

Figure 14.2a Study of three poisonous mushrooms. Study of three poisonous mushrooms and their unique identifying features. Left: Gyromitra esculenta (conifer false morel). Center: Omphalotus olearius (Jack O'Lantern). Right: Amanita smithiana (Smith's Amanita).

Gyromitra Esculenta (Conifer False Morel)

Amanita Smithiana (Smith's Amanita)

Omphalotus Olearius (Jack O'Lantern)

Figure 14.2a Study of three poisonous mushrooms. Study of three poisonous mushrooms and their unique identifying features. Left: Gyromitra esculenta (conifer false morel). Center: Omphalotus olearius (Jack O'Lantern). Right: Amanita smithiana (Smith's Amanita).

Edible mushrooms (common names)

Brown fibers near margin of cap

Distinctly fragrant odor

Edible mushrooms (common names)

Distinctly fragrant odor

Brown fibers near margin of cap

Tricholoma Magnivalere (White Matsutake)

Irregularly pitted cap

Morchella Esculenta (Common Edible More)

Irregularly pitted cap

Poisonous mushrooms (Common names)

Cap surface wipes off easily on fingers no odor

Amanita Smithiana (Smith's Amanita)

Wrinkled & folded cap (not pitted)

Wrinkled & folded cap (not pitted)

Gyromitra Esculenta (Conifer False Morel)

Morchella Esculenta (Common Edible More)

Pale yellow to orange cap

Apricot odor

Gyromitra Esculenta (Conifer False Morel)

Pale yellow to orange cap

Apricot odor

Cantharellus Cibarius (Common Chanterelle)

Intense yellow-orange cap

Omphalotus Olearius ( Jack O' Lantern)

Intense yellow-orange cap

Cantharellus Cibarius (Common Chanterelle)

Omphalotus Olearius ( Jack O' Lantern)

Figure 14.2b Study of edible and poisonous look-alike mushrooms. Some commonly confused look-alike mushrooms.

Figure 14.3 Amanita musoaria (fly amanita)-pink cap. A mature adult Amanita musoaria (fly amanita) characterized by its distinctive pinkish-red cap dotted with white scales, the remnants of the juvenile button's universal veil. (Courtesy of Charles P. Sea, M.D., Department of Emergency Medicine, Ochsner Clinic Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA. Original Source: U.S. Government Document, U.S. Forest Service Document, 1979, "Wild Mushrooms of North America.")

Figure 14.3 Amanita musoaria (fly amanita)-pink cap. A mature adult Amanita musoaria (fly amanita) characterized by its distinctive pinkish-red cap dotted with white scales, the remnants of the juvenile button's universal veil. (Courtesy of Charles P. Sea, M.D., Department of Emergency Medicine, Ochsner Clinic Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA. Original Source: U.S. Government Document, U.S. Forest Service Document, 1979, "Wild Mushrooms of North America.")

Figure 14.4 Amanita musoaria (fly amanita)-orange cap. Mature adult Amanita musoaria (fly amanita) characterized by orange caps rather than the more common pinkish-red caps. The caps are dotted with white scales, the remnants of the universal veils of juvenile buttons. (Courtesy of Charles P. Sea, M.D., Department of Emergency Medicine, Ochsner Clinic Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA. Original Source: U.S. Government Document, U.S. Forest Service Document, 1979, "Wild Mushrooms of North America.")

Figure 14.4 Amanita musoaria (fly amanita)-orange cap. Mature adult Amanita musoaria (fly amanita) characterized by orange caps rather than the more common pinkish-red caps. The caps are dotted with white scales, the remnants of the universal veils of juvenile buttons. (Courtesy of Charles P. Sea, M.D., Department of Emergency Medicine, Ochsner Clinic Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA. Original Source: U.S. Government Document, U.S. Forest Service Document, 1979, "Wild Mushrooms of North America.")

Psilocybin Toxicity

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