Family Colubridae (United States) considered nonvenomous and harmless, yet capable of inflicting contaminated bite wounds. There are many venomous Colubrids in Africa and Asia, including the Boomslang and the bird or twig snake.
Reptilian Salmonella species — Salmonella sepsis in infants and elderly with high case fatality rates (CFRs).
Grooved teeth break off and deliver "venom" in bites.
Toxic venoms = Duvernoy's glands in species once thought "harmless" may actually be venomous. Examples: hognose, garter, ringneck, parrot snakes.
Treatment: Tetanus toxoid and antibiotics.
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