Toxicities

Cardiovascular: SV and ventricular tachydys-rhythmias, hypertension.

Gastrointestinal: Increased gastric acidity leads to peptic ulcer, nausea and vomiting. Central nervous system (CNS): Agitation, restlessness, tremors, seizures. Metabolic: Reduced serum K and Ca (chronic osteoporosis = 2 cups/day, 100 mg/day). Muscle: Increased contractility, high creatine phosphokinse (CPK), rhabdomyolysis.

Airway protection.

Gastrointestinal decontamination: Early syrup of ipecac, activated charcoal (AC) and cathartic, consider multi-dose activated charcoal (MDAC) without additional cathartic. Hemoperfusion: As for all methylxanthines, including theophylline.

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