Toxicodendron

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Representative plants: Rhus family = poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac. "Leaves of three, let them be."

Toxin: The active toxin, urushiol, is suspended in the oily and sticky resin, toxicodendrol, of all Rhus family plants. Antidote: None.

Diagnosis: Pruritic linear vesiculobullous dermatitis.

Treatment: Antihistamines, topical-systemic steroids.

Figure 15.18 Taxus spp. (Yew spp.). Shrub. One of the many varieties of yew shrub or tree that contains taxine, a cardiac sodium-potassium channel blocker that can cause cardiac arrest on ingestion. The anticancer drug, tamoxifen, is derived from a Taxus spp. Shrub or tree, the Pacific yew. (Courtesy of Charles P. Sea, M.D., Department of Emergency Medicine, Ochsner Clinic Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA. Original Source: U.S. Government Document, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1981, "Common Poisonous and Injurious Plants.")

Figure 15.19 Toxicodendron radicans (Poison Ivy): Leaves. The Toxicodendron group of vines and shrubs can induce severe chemical contact dermatitis on exposure to their oily resin, toxicodendrol, which contains the suspended active toxin, urushiol. The Toxico-dendron group of plants includes poison ivy as shown (Toxicodendron radicans), poison oak (Toxicodendron toxicarium), and poison sumac (Toxicodendron ver-nix). Note poison ivy's cluster of three leaves on red stems. (Courtesy of Charles P. Sea, M.D., Department of Emergency Medicine, Ochsner Clinic Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA. Original Source: U.S. Government Document, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1981, "Common Poisonous and Injurious Plants.")

Figure 15.19 Toxicodendron radicans (Poison Ivy): Leaves. The Toxicodendron group of vines and shrubs can induce severe chemical contact dermatitis on exposure to their oily resin, toxicodendrol, which contains the suspended active toxin, urushiol. The Toxico-dendron group of plants includes poison ivy as shown (Toxicodendron radicans), poison oak (Toxicodendron toxicarium), and poison sumac (Toxicodendron ver-nix). Note poison ivy's cluster of three leaves on red stems. (Courtesy of Charles P. Sea, M.D., Department of Emergency Medicine, Ochsner Clinic Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA. Original Source: U.S. Government Document, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1981, "Common Poisonous and Injurious Plants.")

Figure 15.18 Taxus spp. (Yew spp.). Shrub. One of the many varieties of yew shrub or tree that contains taxine, a cardiac sodium-potassium channel blocker that can cause cardiac arrest on ingestion. The anticancer drug, tamoxifen, is derived from a Taxus spp. Shrub or tree, the Pacific yew. (Courtesy of Charles P. Sea, M.D., Department of Emergency Medicine, Ochsner Clinic Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA. Original Source: U.S. Government Document, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1981, "Common Poisonous and Injurious Plants.")

Figure 15.20 Toxicodendron radicans (Poison Ivy): Vine. The Toxicodendron plants may resemble perennial ivy vines, low growing shrubs (poison oak), or small trees (poison sumac). (Courtesy of Charles P. Sea, M.D., Department of Emergency Medicine, Ochsner Clinic Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA. Original Source: U.S. Government Document, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1981, "Common Poisonous and Injurious Plants.")

Figure 15.20 Toxicodendron radicans (Poison Ivy): Vine. The Toxicodendron plants may resemble perennial ivy vines, low growing shrubs (poison oak), or small trees (poison sumac). (Courtesy of Charles P. Sea, M.D., Department of Emergency Medicine, Ochsner Clinic Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA. Original Source: U.S. Government Document, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1981, "Common Poisonous and Injurious Plants.")

TABLE 15.3 Dermatotoxicity Group

Allergic Contact Dermatitis

Allergic Contact Urticaria

Phytophotodermitis

(Due to Sunlight-Activated Psoralens)

Poison ivy

Stinging nettle

Celery

Poison oak

Wood nettle

Figs

Poison sumac

Bull nettle

Limes

Gingko

Agave (Century cactus)

Cow parsnip

Mango

Primrose

Wild parsnip

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