Alcohol

A number of studies have shown that consumption of alcohol inhibits immune function in both adult humans and animals (Jerrells et al. 1986). In adults, ethanol is immunosuppressive, decreasing both the cellularity of the thymus and spleen and interfering directly with B and T-lymphocyte responses. Additionally, alcohol suppresses the phagocytic activity of macrophages and reduces NK cell activity (Seelig et al. 1996). Ethanol consumption alters cytokine production, including IL-2, IL-5, IL-6,...

Current Assessment Of The Immune System In Epa Guideline Studies

A number of guideline toxicity studies utilized in the regulation of pesticides, industrial chemicals, and environmental pollutants include assessments of immune system structure and or function. The majority of these studies are performed in adult animals. Although they were not developed to assess the developing immune system, they can provide valuable information that could indicate the necessity for further testing to evaluate effects on the immune system following developmental exposure....

Signaling Pathways and Transcription Factors Involved in Asthma Pathogenesis

Soluble mediators may play important roles in the sensitization and triggering of asthmatic responses, but they only do so by acting through specific receptors. Binding to a specific receptor by any cognate ligand normally transduces a signal to the nucleus to transcribe, or block the transcription of, a gene or genes via one or more intracellular biochemical pathways. Steps along a pathway are referred to as pathway intermediates, and those intermediates directly responsible for binding to DNA...

Asthmatic Inflammation

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. Asthmatic inflammation involves complex interactions between the cytokines and signaling pathways of many cell types. In adults and children, T cells are known to be integrally involved in this process (Azzawi et al. 1990 Corrigan and Kay 1990 Wardlaw et al. 1988). The maintenance of airway inflammation is attributed, in adults, to chronically activated memory T cells sensitized against a variety of allergens (Corrigan and Kay 1990) and,...

Therapeutic Immunosuppressant Levels In Mammary Gland Secretions

Many of the immunosuppressive drugs used during pregnancy are also found in breast milk. Currently, the American Academy of Pediatrics AAP provides guidelines for breastfeeding based on the excretion rate and potential teratogenic effects of each drug Tendron et al. 2002 . For example, limited concentrations lt 10 of prednisone and prednisolone have been measured in breast milk, levels perceived by the AAP as nonthreatening to the breastfed infant Coulam et al. 1982 Ost et al. 1985 . Thus,...

Timing Of Immune Assays For Detecting Developmental Immunotoxicity

Development of the immune system has been more studied and better defined in the mouse than any other species see Chapter 1 . With this in mind, many immune function tests utilized in adult mouse models are not valid in perinatal mice simply because of the immaturity of their immune systems. Therefore, an adult mouse immunotoxicity risk assessment screening battery must be modified to be age-appropriate, if it is to be used for detecting postnatal immune deficits following prenatal chemical...

The Pigs Intestinal Immune System During Postnatal Development

The early postnatal development of the gut immune system is important for effective immunological responses towards nutritional and microbial antigens in the intestinal lumen. Adaptation to the commensal flora, defense against pathogens, and the development of oral tolerance to food components are essential immunological processes. Depending on the food composition and on the presence of oral food components, the morphology of both the intestinal mucosa and the intestinal immune cells changes...

Diazepam Valium

Diazepam DZP is a benzodiazepine BDZ with central nervous system CNS -depressant properties. It has anxiolytic, sedative hypnotic, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant effects. DZP is used in humans for the short-term relief of symptoms related to anxiety disorders the treatment of agitation, tremors, delirium, seizures, and hallucinations as a result of alcohol withdrawal the relief of muscle spasms in certain neurological diseases and the control of active seizures Costa and Guidotti 1979 ....

Proposed Content Of A Developmental Immunotoxicity Study

Although the need for developmental immunotoxicity testing has long been recognized by the scientific and regulatory communities NRC 1993b USEPA 1999, 2002b , there is currently no formal EPA testing guideline protocol for this study. Studies have, however, been conducted in numerous laboratories to assess the developmental immunotoxic potential for a myriad of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and environmental pollutants. Additionally, the National Toxicology Program NTP has devised an...

Development of the Rodent Immune System

Dodson CONTENTS Embryogenesis of Hematopoietic and Lymphopoietic Fetal Liver as a Hematopoietic Splenic Embryonic Emergence of the Embryonic Emergence of Secondary Lymphoid Hematopoietic Development of the Bone Hematopoietic Postnatal Development of the Immune Establishment of Immune Memory and Immune Critical Developmental Windows for the Immune System in Rodents 12 In Vivo Reconstitution of Immunocompetent