Cyclosporin A (CsA), a fungal metabolite used in therapeutic immunosuppression for the prevention of human organ transplant rejection, has been found to produce autoimmunity in both rodents and humans (Holladay and Smialowicz 2000). Women who received CsA during their pregnancies often delivered prematurely or had babies that were small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and had birth defects (cataracts, cleft palate, dysmorphic facial appearance, and so on). CsA has been found to prevent activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell precursors by interfering with selective events during critical periods in thymocyte differentiation and clonal deletion. CsA also interferes with deletion of autoreactive T-cells after bone marrow reconstitution which in turn induces a variety of autoimmune responses in adult rodents. After exposure to CsA, fetal thymic organ cultures demonstrated that mature T-cell generation was completely blocked. These studies support the concept that the fetal immune system could be targeted by maternal dosing with CsA (Holladay and Luster 1994). Newborn mice after prenatal and postnatal CsA treatments were also found to display impaired thymocyte differentiation along with an absence of mature T cells in lymph nodes and spleen, and a lack of T cell function. Concluding evidence also predicts that CsA given prenatally may affect the same target organs in the embryo as in the adult and may further cause autoimmune disease later in the life of gestationally exposed individuals (Holladay and Smialowicz 2000).

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Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

With all the stresses and strains of modern living, panic attacks are become a common problem for many people. Panic attacks occur when the pressure we are living under starts to creep up and overwhelm us. Often it's a result of running on the treadmill of life and forgetting to watch the signs and symptoms of the effects of excessive stress on our bodies. Thankfully panic attacks are very treatable. Often it is just a matter of learning to recognize the symptoms and learn simple but effective techniques that help you release yourself from the crippling effects a panic attack can bring.

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