Cocaine and Other Stimulants

Cocaine is an alkaloid extracted from the leaf of the Erythroxylon coca bush. The hydrochloride salt is water soluble and can be administered orally, intravenously, or intranasally. The intravenous route of administration has an onset of action of 10-60 seconds, with a peak effect achieved in minutes and duration of effect that lasts up to 1 hour. Administration of the drug by the intranasal route has an onset of action of up to 5 minutes, with a peak effect achieved in approximately 20...

Physiology Of Healthy Sleep

Normal sleep is made up of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM sleep. In non-REM sleep, the sleeper passes from wakefulness into stage I, a light sleep that is easily disrupted by environmental stimuli. Stage II is deeper and most stimuli will pass unnoticed by the sleeper. Stages III and IV are deeper still and the sleeper's electroencephalogram (EEG) shows higher-voltage slow waves, leading to these stages of sleep being described as deep, slow-wave, or delta-wave sleep. Here...

Biopsychosocial Aspects Of Hiv And Aids

AIDS is a severe, chronic, multiorgan, multisystem illness with multiple and severe comorbid psychiatric and other medical illnesses. AIDS is also a prevalent illness that presents with psychiatric responses to illness, is associated with psychiatric illness because of the affinity of HIV for brain and neural tissue, and occurs with comorbid psychiatric illness as well as other medical illnesses. In many ways, AIDS and other manifestations of HIV infection can be seen as a paradigm of a complex...