In the past several years, much has been learned about the neuropathogenesis, clinical presentation, and treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Despite these advancements, patients with HIV continue to suffer from functionally significant neurocognitive disorders. Thus, effective and well-tolerated antiretro-viral, neuroprotective, and adjunctive treatments need to be developed.


Albert SM, Flater SR, Claus R, et al. (2003). Medication management skill in HIV: I. Evidence for adaptation of medication management strategies in people with cognitive impairment. II. Evidence for a pervasive lay model of medication efficacy. AIDS Behav 7:329-338. American Academy of Neurology AIDS Task Force (1991). Nomenclature and research case definitions for neurologic manifestations ofhuman immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Report of a Working Group of the American Academy of Neurology AIDS Task Force. Neurology 41:778-785. Anderson ER, Gendelman HE, and Xiong H (2004). Me-mantine protects hippocampal neuronal function in murine human immunodeficiency virus type 1 encephalitis. J Neurosci 24:7194-7198.

Arendt G, von Giesen HJ, Hefter H, and Theisen A (2001). Therapeutic effects of nucleoside analogues on psychomotor slowing in HIV infection. 15:493500.

Bartlett JA, and Ferrando S (2004). Identification and management of neurologic and psychiatric side effects associated with HIV and HAART. Medscape Retrieved April 25, 2007, from http://www.medscape .com/viewarticle/470017.

Beltran S, Lescure F-X, Desailloud R, Douadi Y, Smail A, El Esper I, Arlot S, Schmit J-L, for the Thyroid and VIH (THYVI) Group (2003). Increased prevalence ofhypothyroidism among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a need for screening. Clin

Infect Dis 37:579-583.

Brinkman K, Kroon F, Hugen PW, and Burger DM (1998). Therapeutic concentrations of indinavir in cerebrospinal fluid ofHIV-1-infected patients. AIDS 12:537.

Brouillette MJ, Chouinard G, and Laloonde R (1994). Didanosine-induced mania in HIV infection. Am J Psychiatry 151:1839-1840.

Butters N, Grant I, Haxby J, et al. (1990). Assessment of AIDS-related cognitive changes: recommendations of the NIMH Workshop on Neuropsychological Assessment Approaches. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 12:963-978.

Chang L, Ernst T, Leonido-Yee M, et al. (1999). Highly active antiretroviral therapy reverses brain metabolite abnormalities in mild HIV dementia. Neurology 53:782-789.

Chen F, Day SL, Metcalfe RA, Sethi G, Kapembwa MS, Brook MG, Churchill D, De Ruiter A, Robinson S, Lacey CJ, and Weetman AP (2005). Characteristics of autoimmune thyroid disease occurring as a late complication of immune reconstitution in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Medicine (Baltimore) 84(2): 98-106.

Clifford DB, Evans S, Yang Y, et al. (2005). Impact of efavirenz on neuropsychological performance and symptoms in HIV-infected individuals. Ann Intern Med 143:714-721.

Colebunders R, and Florence E (2002). Neuropsychi-atric reaction induced by clarithromycin. Sex Transm Infect 78:75-76.

Crone C, and Gabriel GM (2003). Comprehensive review of hepatitis C for psychiatrists: risks, screening, diagnosis, treatment and interferon-based therapy complications. J Psychiatr Pract 9:93-110.

Dana Consortium on Therapy for HIV Dementia and Related Cognitive Disorders (1996). Clinical confirmation of the American Academy of Neurology algorithm for HIV-1-associated cognitive/motor disorder. Neurology 47:1247-1253.

Dana Consortium on the Therapy of HIV Dementia and Related Cognitive Disorders (1998). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of deprenyl and thioctic acid in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cognitive impairment. Neurology 50:645-651.

Davis HF, Skolasky RL Jr, Selnes OA, et al. (2002). Assessing HIV-associated dementia: modified HIV Dementia Scale versus the grooved pegboard. AIDS Read 12:29-31, 38.

De Luca A, Ciancio BC, Larussa D, et al. (2002). Correlates ofindependent HIV-1 replication in the CNS and of its control by antiretrovirals. Neurology 59: 342-347.

Di Stefano M, Monno L, Fiore JR, et al. (1998). Neurological disorders during HIV-1 infection correlate with viral load in cerebrospinal fluid but not with virus phenotype. AIDS 12:737-743.

Dore G, Correll PK, Li Y, et al. (1999). Changes to AIDS dementia complex in the era of highly active anti-

retroviral therapy. AIDS 13:1249-1253.

Ellis RJ, Hsia K, Spector SA, et al. (1997). Cerebrospi-nal fluid human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels are elevated in neurocognitively impaired individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center Group. Ann Neurol 42:679-688.

Enting RH, Hoetelmans RM, Lange JM, Burger DM, Beijnen JH, and Portegies P (1998). Antiretroviral drugs and the central nervous system. AIDS 12: 1941-1955.

Ferrando S, van Gorp W, McElhiney M, Goggin K, Sewell M, and Rabkin J (1998). Highly active anti-retroviral treatment in HIV infection: benefits for neuropsychological function. AIDS 12:F65-F70.

Ferrando SJ, Rabkin JG, van Gorp W, Lin SH, and McElhiney M (2003). Longitudinal improvement in psychomotor processing speed is associated with potent combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infection. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 15:208-214.

Filippi CG, Sze G, Farber SJ, Shahmanesh M, and Selwyn PA (1998). Regression of HIV encephalop-athy and basal ganglia signal intensity abnormality at MR imaging in patients with AIDS after the initiation of protease inhibitor therapy. Radiology 206: 491-498.

Filippi CG, Ulug AM, Ryan E, Ferrando SJ, and van Gorp W (2001). Diffusion tensor imaging in HIV patients with normal-appearing white matter on brain MR

scans. AJNRAm J Neuroradiol 22:277-283.

Folstein MF, Folstein SE, and McHugh PR (1975). "Mini-Mental State.'' A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician.

J Psychiatr Res 12:189-198.

Forstein M, Cournos F, Douaihy A, Goodkin K, Wain-bergML,andWapenyi KH(2006). GuidelineWatch: Practice Guideline fort the Treatment of Patients with HIV/AIDS. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.

Foster R, Taylor C, and Everall IP (2004). More on abacavir-induced neuropsychiatric reactions. AIDS


Gisslen M, Hagberg L, Svennerholm B, and Norkrans G (1997). HIV-1 RNA is not detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid during antiretroviral combination therapy. AIDS 11:1194.

Gulevich SJ, McCutchan JA, Thal LJ, et al. (1993). Effect of antiretroviral therapy on the cerebrospinal fluid of patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 6: 1002-1007.

Heaton RK, Grant I, Butters N, et al. (1995). The HNRC 500—neuropsychology of HIV infection at different disease stages. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 1:231-251.

Hinkin CH, van Gorp W, Satz P, et al. (1996). Actual versus self-reported cognitive dysfunction in HIV-1 infection: memory—metamemory dissociations. JClin Exp Neuropsychol 18:431-443.

Hinkin CH, Castellon SA, Durvasula RS, et al. (2002). Medication adherence among HIV+ adults: effects of cognitive dysfunction and regimen complexity.

Neurology 59:1944-1950.

Holmes VF, Fernandez F, and Levy JK (1989). Psychostimulant response in AIDS-related complex patients. J Clin Psychiatry 50:5-8.

Johnson MO, Stallworth T, and Neilands TB (2003). The drugs or the disease? Causal attributions of symptoms held by HIV-positive adults on HAART. AIDS Behav 7:109-117.

Lawton MP, and Brody EM (1969). Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist 9(3):179-186.

Letendre SL, McCutchan JA, Childers ME, et al. (2004). Enhancing antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus cognitive disorders. Ann Neurol

Letendre SL, Woods SP, Ellis RJ, et al. (2006). Lithium improves HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment. AIDS 20(14):1885-1888.

Lyketsos CG, and Federman EB (1995). Psychatric disorders and HIV infection: impact on one another.

EpidemolRev 17:152-164.

Marik PE, Kiminyo K, and Zaloga GP (2002). Adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Crit Care Med 30(6): 1267-1273.

Marra CM, Lockhart D, ZuntJR, Perrin M, Coombs RW, and Collier AC (2003). Changes in CSF and plasma HIV-1 RNA and cognition after starting potent antiretroviral therapy. Neurology 60:1388-1390.

Martin EM, Pitrak DL, Novak RM, Pursell KJ, and Mullane KM (1999). Reaction times are faster in HIV-seropositive patients on antiretroviral therapy: a preliminary report. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 21: 730-735.

Maxwell S, Scheftner WA, Kessler HA, and Busch K (1988). Manic syndrome associated with zidovudine treatment. JAMA 259:3406-3407.

Mayo J, Callazos J, Martinez E, and Ibarra S (2002). Adrenal function in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient. Arch Intern Med 162:10951098.

McArthur J (1994). Neurological and neuropathological manifestations of HIV infection. In I Grant and J Martin (eds.), The Neuropsychology of HIV Infection (pp. 56-107). New York: Oxford University Press.

McArthur JC, McClernon DR, Cronin MF, etal. (1997). Relationship between human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia and viral load in cerebro-spinal fluid and brain. Ann Neurol 42:689-698.

Melton ST, Kirkwood CK, and Ghaemi SN (1997). Phar-macotherapy of HIV dementia. Ann Pharmacother 31:457-473.

Morlese JF, Qazi NA, Gazzard BG, and Nelson MR (2002). Nevirapine-induced neuropsychiatric complications, a class effect of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors? AIDS 16:1840-1841.

Mylonakis E, Koutkia P, and Grinspoon S (2001). Diagnosis and treatment of androgen deficiency in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men and women. Clin Infect Dis 33:857-864.

Navia BA, Jordan BD, and Price RW (1986a). The AIDS dementia complex: I. Clinical features. Ann Neurol 19:517-524.

Navia BA, Cho ES, Petito CK, and Price RW (1986b). The AIDS dementia complex: II. Neuropathology. Ann Neurol 19:525-535.

Navia BA, Davni U, Simpson D, et al. (1998). A phase I/II trial of nimodipine for HIV-related neurologic complications. Neurology 51:221-228.

Perry S, Jacobsberg LB, Fishman B, Frances A, Bobo J, and Jacobsberg BK (1990). Psychiatric diagnosis before serological testing for the human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Psychiatry 147:89-93.

Persitsky Y, Limoges J, Rasmussen J, et al. (2001). Reduction in glial immunity and neuropathology by a PAF antagonist and an MMP and TNF-alpha inhibitor in SCID mice with HIV-1 encephalitis. J Neuroimmunol 114:57-68.

Power C, Selnes OA, Grim JA, and McArthur JC (1995). HIV Dementia Scale: a rapid screening test. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 8:273-278.

Price RW, and Staprans S (1997). Measuring the "viral load'' in cerebrospinal fluid in human immunodeficiency virus infection: window into brain infection? Ann Neurol 42:675-678.

Rabkin JG, Wagner GJ, and Rabkin R (1999). Testosterone therapy for human immunodeficiency viruspositive men with and without hypogonadism. J Clin Psychopharmacol 19:19-27.

Rabkin JG, Ferrando SJ, Wagner GJ, and Rabkin R (2000). DHEA treatment for HIV+ patients: effects on mood, androgenic and anabolic parameters. Psy-choneuroendocrinology 25:53-68.

Rabkin JG, McElhiney, Ferrando SJ, and van Gorp WG (2004a). Predictors of employment of men with HIV/AIDS: a longitudinal study. Psychosom Med 66:72-78.

Rabkin JG, McElhiney M, Rabkin R, and Ferrando SJ (2004b). Modafinil treatment for fatigue in HIV+ patients: a pilot study. J Clin Psychiatry 65(12): 16881695.

Ravitch IR, and Moseley CG (2001). High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for abacavir and its two major metabolites in human urine and cere-brospinal fluid. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 762:165-173.

Ryan EL, Morgello S, Isaacs K, et al. (2004). Neuropsy-chiatric impact of hepatitis C on advanced HIV. Neurology 62(6):957-962.

Sacktor NC, Bacellar H, Hoover DR, et al. (1996). Psy-chomotor slowing in HIV infection: a predictor of dementia, AIDS and death. J Neurovirol 2:404-410.

Sacktor NC, Lyles RH, Skolasky RL, et al. (1999). Combination antiretroviral therapy improves psy-chomotor speed performance in HIV-seropositive homosexual men. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Neurology 52:1640-1647.

Sacktor N, Lyles RH, Skolasky R, et al. (2001a). HIV-associated neurologic disease incidence changes: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 1990-1998. Neurology 56:257-260.

Sacktor N, Tarwater PM, Skolasky RL, et al. (2001b). CSF antiretroviral drug penetrance and the treatment of HIV-associated psychomotor slowing. Neurology 57: 542-544.

Sacktor N, Skolasky RL, Tarwater PM, et al. (2003). Response to systemic HIV viral load suppression correlates with psychomotor speed performance. Neurology 61:567-569.

Sacktor N, Skolasky RL, Ernst T, et al. (2005). A multicenter study of two magnetic resonance spectros-copy techniques in individuals with HIV dementia.

J Magn Reson Imaging 21:325-333.

Schifitto P, Kieburz K, McDermott MP, et al. (2001). Clinical trials in HIV-associated cognitive impairment: cognitive and functional outcomes. Neurology 56:415-418.

Schmitt FA, Bigley JW, McKinnis R, Logue PE, Evans RW, and Drucker JL. (1988). Neuropsychological outcome of zidovudine (AZT) treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. N Engl J Med 319:1573-1578.

Smith CA, van Gorp WG, Ryan ER, Ferrando J, and Rabkin J (2003). Screening subtle HIV-related cognitive dysfunction: the clinical utility of the HIV dementia scale. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 33: 116-118.

Staprans S, Marlowe N, Glidden D, et al. (1999). Time course of cerebrospinal fluid responses to antiretro-viral therapy: evidence for variable compartmental-ization of infection. AIDS 13:1051-1061.

Starace F, Bartoli L, Aloisi MS, et al. (2002). Cognitive and affective disorders associated to HIV infection in the HAART era: findings from the NeuroICONA study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 106:20-26.

Staszewski S, Morales-Ramirez J, Tashima KT, et al. (1999). Efavirenz plus zidovudine and lamivudine, efavirenz plus indinavir, and indinavir plus zidovu-dine and lamivudine in treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults. Study 006 team. N Engl J Med 341: 1865-1873.

Tashima KT, Caliendo AM, Ahmad M, et al. (1999). Cerebrospinal fluid human immunodeficiencyvirus type 1 (HIV-1) suppression and efavirenz drug concentrations in HIV-1-infected patients receivingcom-bination therapy. J Infect Dis 180:862-864.

Tozzi V, Balestra P, Galgani S, et al. (1999). Positive and sustained effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on HIV-1-associated neurocognitive impairment. AIDS 13:1889-1897.

Wilkie FL, Goodkin K, Eisdorfer C, et al. (1998). Mild cognitive impairment and risk of mortality in HIV-1 infection. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 10: 125-132.

Williams JBW, Rabkin JG, Remien RH, Gorman JM, and Ehrhardt AA (1991). Multidisciplinary baseline assessment of homosexual men with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection II. Standardized clinical assessment of current and lifetime psychopathology. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48: 124-130

All About Alzheimers

All About Alzheimers

The comprehensive new ebook All About Alzheimers puts everything into perspective. Youll gain insight and awareness into the disease. Learn how to maintain the patients emotional health. Discover tactics you can use to deal with constant life changes. Find out how counselors can help, and when they should intervene. Learn safety precautions that can protect you, your family and your loved one. All About Alzheimers will truly empower you.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment