Monitoring of glycemic status should begin when NOD mice reach 10 weeks of age. Generally, this is done at weekly intervals by using Diastix (Bayer Diagnostics; appendix 5) or similar reagent strips to measure urine glucose. Picking a mouse up leads to immediate urination, allowing a drop to be collected on the test area (tip) of the reagent strip. High levels of glucose in the urine (glycosuria) appear when plasma glucose is >300 mg/dl. A nonfasting plasma glucose of >300 mg/dl for 2 consecutive weeks indicates IDDM. The nonfasting plasma glucose levels of young, prediabetic NOD mice ranges between 130 and 180 mg/dl. Plasma glucose can be measured directly in small samples of venous blood using glucose oxidase methods (either commercially available glucose analyzers or small portable analyzers and glucose oxidase-coated test strips; see unit 15.3 for details). Onset of IDDM can also be accelerated in young prediabetic NOD mice by intraperitoneal administration (unit 1.6) of cyclophosphamide (Sigma; 200 to 300 mg per kg body weight). It is quite difficult to maintain hyperglycemic NOD mice by insulin treatment; mice are usually euthanized after the diagnosis is certain. Transition from mild to severe hyperglycemia occurs over a period of 3 to 4 weeks. During this time, the mouse will survive without insulin therapy. If insulin therapy is part of the investigator's experimental protocol, doses of 1 to 2 U of a 1:1 mixture of regular and slower-acting porcine insulin (both available from Novo Nordisk; appendix 5) are injected intraperi-toneally as required by empirical determination of hyperglycemic status immediately before injection in the morning and evening (also see unit 15.3).
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All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.