facilitates horizontal transmission of CMV (Mocarski, 1996). The salivary glands were identified as the site of most rapid virus shedding after reactivation of latent CMV (Polic et al., 1998). Murine CMV (MCMV) produced in the salivary glands is much more virulent than the virus produced in other organs or in cultured cells (Osborn and Walker, 1971). For these reasons, infection of mice with salivary gland-derived MCMV has been extensively used as a model for human CMV infection and disease

Critical Parameters and Troubleshooting

Depending on the purpose of removing the salivary glands, one should consider the risk of damaging the tissue by inadequate surgical instruments. Tissue damaging should be avoided in particular if the gland is destined for his-topathological examinations. If contamination with nonglandular tissue, such as lymphatic nodes and fat tissue, could compromise the results of a particular experiment, the removal of salivary glands should be performed under the dissecting microscope.

Anticipated Results

If the surgical instruments are appropriate and the procedure is gentle, the structure of glandular tissue should be well preserved. After sufficient practice, one can even remove all glands in a single act.

Time Considerations

A skilled technician can dissect and remove all the salivary glands in 3 to 5 minutes. The removal of salivary glands in neonatal mice is somewhat more demanding and requires more experience.

Literature Cited

Facini, J.M., Abbot, D.P., and Paulus, G.J.J. (eds.) 1990. Digestive system. In Mouse Histopathol-ogy. A Glossary for Use in Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Studies, pp. 72-74. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Jonjic, S., Mutter, W., Weiland, F., Reddehase, M.J., and Koszinowski, U.H. 1989. Site-directed persistent cytomegalovirus infection after selective long-term depletion of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. J. Exp. Med. 169:1199-1212.

McQuone, S.J. 1999. Acute viral and bacterial infections of the salivary glands. Otolaryngol. Clin. N. Am. 32:793-811.

Mocarski, E.S. 1996. Cytomegaloviruses and their replication. In Fields Virology (B.N. Fields, D.M. Knipe, and P.M. Howley, eds.) pp. 24472492. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia.

Osborn, J.E. and Walker, D.L. 1971. Virulence and attenuation of murine cytomegalovirus. Infect. Immun. 3:228-236.

Polic, B., Hengel, H., Krmpotic, A., Trgovcich, J., Pavic, I., Lucin, P., Jonjic, S., and Koszinowski, U.H. 1998. Hierarchical and redundant lymphocyte subset control precludes cytomegalovirus replication during latent infection. J. Exp. Med. 188:1047-1054.

Contributed by Stipan Jonjic University of Rijeka Rijeka, Croatia

Surgical Removal of Mouse Salivary Glands

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