Revolutionary Guided Juicing Program
Initially, the most important nursing interventions concentrate on pain management. Teach relaxation techniques, diversional activities, and position changes. Help promote the passage of renal calculi. Encourage the patient to walk, if possible. Offer the patient fruit juices to help acidify the urine. Teach the patient the importance of proper diet to help avoid a recurrence of the renal calculi, with particular emphasis on adequate hydration and avoiding excessive salt and protein intake.
Basella is usually considered a native of southern Asia (India), but its exact origin is not known. In Southeast Asia and China it has been grown since ancient times and is now widely cultivated as a minor vegetable in most tropical and temperate regions around the world. It is commonly grown for its young shoots, which make a succulent, mucilaginous vegetable, used as a potherb in soups and stews, boiled, fried in oil, or sometimes as a green salad. In the Western Hemisphere, basella is grown in Mexico and parts of North America for its leaves that are used in the same way as spinach. An early use of the fruits in China seems to have been for dyeing purposes. The red fruit juice can be used as ink, cosmetic, and for coloring foods, and a number of medicinal applications have been reported. The red forms are commonly planted as ornamentals, even becoming popular in Europe as a pot plant.
Mustard increases activity of the salivary glands, hence stimulates appetite. Mustard comes from mustum ardens, a pungent paste of ground mustard seeds and fruit juice used by the Romans. Sinapis comes from sinapi, Pliny's name for mustard. In 301, Emperor Diocletian fixed a maximum price for seeds and powder. In 812, Charlemagne decreed that mustard should be
If the patient develops signs of alcohol withdrawal (restlessness, insomnia, thirst, and tremors progressing to fever, hallucinations, and combative and irrational behavior), notify the physician and decrease stimulation as much as possible. Place the patient in a quiet, darkened room with a cool temperature. Provide frequent sips of water and fruit juices, but avoid fluids with caffeine. Place the patient in a room where she or he can be monitored frequently to decrease the risk of injury.
This species of Citrus is native to tropical Southeast Asia, but is now grown throughout Southeast Asia, Central America, and the Mascarene and Hawaiian Islands for its leaves and fruit juice, which are used as a flavoring. The leaves are a more common ingredient in Southeast Asian dishes and are particularly ubiquitous in Thai cuisine. It is usual to tear the lime leaves before adding them to the cooking pot and to remove them once the dish is cooked. The leaves are used both fresh and dried in soups, curries, sauces, and gravies. Usually sold fresh in the native countries, dried whole and powdered leaves of makrut lime can also be found in Asian and western supermarkets. The dried or candied peels and the juice of the fruits also serve as a flavoring, and essential oils obtained from the leaves and fruit peel are utilized in the cosmetics industry.
Be sure the patient understands the dosage, route, action, and side effects of all prescribed medications. Instruct the patient in proper self-injection techniques for calcitonin. Educate the patient about side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, itchy hands, fever, inflammation of the injection site, and facial flushing, as well as the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia. Teach the patient to take ethane hydroxydiphosphate (EHDP) medication with fruit juice on an empty stomach at least 2 hours before meals. Tell the patient to call the physician if he or she experiences stomach cramps, diarrhea, or new bone pain. Educate the patient who is taking plicamycin about the signs and symptoms of infection. Tell the patient to report any easy bruising, bleeding, nausea, or anorexia. Provide information about the Paget's Disease Foundation (165 Cadman Plaza East, Brooklyn, NY 11201).
Grapes are woody vines cultivated for their fruit, which is eaten fresh, dried, or drunk as a juice or fermented. By definition, wine is any fermented fruit juice however, in practice, the term wine is overwhelmingly used for the fermented juice of grapes. The simple act of collecting ripe grapes and merely bruising or crushing them can cause fermentation to occur due to the naturally occurring yeast on the fruit skin. Although some scientists think it is possible that man began making wine as early as 8000 bc, the first concrete evidence of wine making comes from residues found in clay vessels from western Iran that have been dated to 5500 years ago.
Patulin (Fig. 18.3) is produced by a number of species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys but in the context of human foods the most important is Penicillium expansum. This species is responsible for a soft rot of apples and a number of other fruits. It would not normally be a problem in fresh fruits because the rot is usually obvious and the fruit discarded. There are a few cultivars of apple, such as the Bramley, with an open core structure in which infection and mould growth can occur without any external evidence of a problem. Again, in the case of fresh fruit, the moulding would be apparent on cutting up the apple and it would most probably be discarded. The major source of patulin in the human diet is from fresh apple juice (and other fruit juices) because a perfectly palatable juice can be expressed from fruit in which some fruits are mouldy. Levels of contamination of fruit juices (mainly apple juices) over the last few years have ranged from 5 to 1130 mgl-1 and the...
It often happens that an ingredient (or more correctly put, a food additive) that has added ingredients is used in the formulation of a soft drink. A typical example would be a fruit juice concentrate ingredient that was preserved with sulfur dioxide (SO2) at 1500 ppm. When added to the beverage formulation, this could result in a carryover of a few ppm of SO2 into the final beverage. This small amount of SO2 is not in any way intended to serve as a preservative in the beverage. Most food laws recognize that this is a case of carryover. They would not require the sulfur dioxide to be included in the ingredients list.
Similar problems may arise during investigations of DPO inhibitors. There is much interest in these, since the food industry is keenly aware of the need to control enzymic browning in many foods. Inhibition of enzymic browning can be brought about (1) by reversing or blocking the later color-producing reactions or (2) by inhibiting the actual DPO enzyme (usually a catecholase). Examples of the former include the control of enzymic browning in fruit juices by addition of ascorbic acid, which reduces the quinoid reaction products back to the parent phenol (Embs and Markakis, 1965 Golan-Goldhirsh and Whitaker, 1984), or cysteine, which combines with quinones to form colorless thioethers, thus blocking any further reaction to form colored end-products (Walker and Reddish, 1964 Montgomery, 1983 Dudley and Hotchkiss, 1989 Richard et al., 1991). By contrast, true inhibition of a DPO will involve some sort of interactive effect with the active site of the enzyme, for example, inhibition by...
Frozen fruit juice shake comprising frozen mixt. of fruit juice, stabiliser(s), protein, flavour, acid, and water to give specified brix value. A frozen, hard pack, fruit juice product comprising at least one type of fruit juice a fruit juice flavour enhancer selected from the group consisting of flavouring, spices, flavour enhancers and edible organic acids and mixtures thereof from 0.5 percent to 1.5 percent by weight of at least one stabiliser based upon the total weight of said product with the provision that the product contains at least 0.02 percent xanthan gum from 0.05 percent to 0.50 percent by weight of whipping agent protein based upon the total weight of said product an amount of water to adjust the overall brix value of said product to the range of 10 to 35, and said product being essentially free of added sugar and corn sweetener additives and having overrun of at least 20 percent wherein said frozen fruit juice product has a smooth creamy appearance and good low...
Vegetable and or fruit juice preparations are low-calorie, dietetic or diabetic prods. contg. pectin and magnesium. Patent Assignee KOZPONTI ELELMISZER (ELEL-N) Low-calorie, diet or diabetic vegetable fruit juices creams or cocktails are prepd. by (a) grinding the vegetable and or fruit tissues (b) treating with endopolygalacturonase, opt. in the presence of water and (c) adding to the suspension, consisting of cell agglomerates of below 0.2 mm., a Mg source and opt. a stabiliser.
Before proceeding on the subject of fruit juice technology, it is essential to address the subject of Brix acidity correction. The regular Brix refractometer instrument used to determine Brix in sugar solutions is calibrated on the refractive indices of pure In most fruit juices, however, the acidity content in the form of soluble organic acids, such as citric acid, is relatively high enough to considerably affect the refractometer reading as far as the true total dissolved solids content is concerned. In other words, the high soluble acid component of fruit juices refracts light differently to sucrose solutions for which the instrument was calibrated. Therefore, an error will be introduced in the Brix reading obtained. The reading will, in fact, be lower than in reality. For this reason, when measuring the Brix of fruit juices, especially those with high acidity contents, an acidity correction must be added to the reading. Fruit juice processors and technologists over the years...
As I mentioned in the previous section, soft drink technical personnel (other than in companies where juices are the core business), are often not too familiar with the finer peculiarities and esoteric nature of fruit juice technology. If the person asked to do such a calculation has never done this before, he or she is usually stymied at first but then reacts logically enough to say something along these lines This might work, but it is very likely that he or she will significantly overshoot the minimum specified percentage level, and as such all is legally in order. However, fruit juice is a relatively costly item and a lot of money could be going down the drain. Also, overshooting the target could affect some of the quality parameters of the beverage, e.g., Brix, acidity, cloud intensity, and general overall taste. Vfjc the volume (in liters) of fruit juice concentrate required to achieve the target percentage of single-strength juice in the beverage Bfjc the Brix of the fruit...
One such Act, Agricultural Product Standards Act, 1990 (Act No. 119 of 1990), issued by the Department of Agriculture, contains a somewhat long-drawn-out and complex regulation (Regulation R.286, 7 November 1980) addressing the single issue of classifying beverages containing fruit juice into various categories and how such are to be labeled. It impacted heavily on the South African soft drinks industry for many years.
Stems are crushed to extract the sweet sugar-containing liquid. In many countries, the fresh juice or a simple fermented juice is consumed within 48 hours of crushing. The process of refining sugar cane involves boiling down the juice until crystallization occurs, and produces various grades of sugar. The uncrystallizable sugar by-products molasses or treacle are fermented and distilled into rum, aguardiente, or cacha a.
The Brix scale of measurement was established by a 19 th century German chemist, Professor A.F.W. Brix, in whose honor the system is named. He found that by immersing a hydrometer in a fruit juice, he was able, from its density, to calculate the percentage of sugar in the juice. The Brix hydrometer was designed with a measurement scale from which fairly accurate sugar content was immediately readable. This was a boon to the European winemakers of the time, as they could assess the sugar content of grape juices and, thus, judge ahead the quality of the wine these could yield.
Juices and nectars are beverages made mainly from natural Carbonated soft drinks make up fruit juices, the content of which is prescribed by local food law almost half of the global soft drinks regulations. Roughly speaking, juices contain pure, 100 juice, market. whereas nectars have around 50 natural juice content. Juices may or may not be sweetened, but nectars are always sweetened,
This chapter deals with fruit juice as a general commodity used in the preparation of a large variety of beverage types in the soft drinks industry. It does not deal with these specific juice beverages but rather focuses on the food technology aspects associated with fruit juices as raw materials used in these types of drinks. A further distinction to be made is that this chapter does not deal extensively with the details of fruit juice processing. The aim is to address those technological issues related to fruit juice processing that are of special interest to the soft drink manufacturer and consumer. Processed fruit juices occur in many forms. Generally, a fruit juice may be defined as Then there are the comminuted fruit juices, in which the inedible portions of the fruit, such as the peel, are included in the processed juice. This particular type of juice is used mainly in beverages to obtain the bitter astringent peel taste, as in bitter orange and bitter lemon beverages. Most...
When juice is squeezed from a lemon, a slightly cloudy liquid Single-strength juice is one of the is obtained that is very sour to the taste. This is 100 pure basic concepts in fruit juice tech- lemon juice and is referred to as single-strength juice. This term nology. denotes that the juice was not processed or concentrated in any As most fruit juices are used in their processed concentrated forms, a standard benchmark is required to establish just by how much they were concentrated from their natural states when first extracted. The single-strength juice characteristics and composition is used as this reference.
Most fruit juice concentrates contain certain levels of insoluble suspended solids derived from fleshy or fibrous parts of the fruit that find their ways into the juice during the extraction process. In lemon juice, as well as in other citrus fruit species, this material comes mainly from the fibrous walls of the juice sacs and fruit segments, which are macerated during the extraction process. Also, some small pieces of the inner parts of the fruit skin can be incorporated into the extracted juice. All of these suspended materials are referred to collectively as pulp.
Fruit juices are renowned for their vulnerabilities to spoilage by microorganisms, especially by mold species. This is due to the natural sugar content as well as other fruit micronutrients that serve as excellent substrates for the microorganisms to grow upon. In operations with fruit-juice-containing products, these are considered as more sensitive than others, and special cleaning and sanitizing systems need to be implemented. Also, in-line pasteurization before filling is recommended. Tunnel pasteurization, hot-filling, and general aseptic filling are recommended for final beverages that are suitable for such processes.
Throughout my long and interesting career in the soft drinks industry, I always wondered about the business logic of marketing soft drinks containing fruit juices at the relatively low percentage levels seen in the market. These types of beverages, with single-strength juice content below 10 and often even much lower, serve, in my modest opinion, no real purpose. The low juice content is neither of much nutritional benefit nor does it contribute much fruit taste to the beverage. Fruit juices are relatively expensive. It also introduces in such beverages a heightened spoilage hazard incommensurate with the benefits they allegedly claim to offer.
Many fruit juices are of the cloudy type. Concentrates from such fruit species, like lemon, will have a cloud stability specification. This specification relates to the potential possible destruction of the natural fruit cloud suspension due to various factors, one being excessive residual pectinaze enzymatic activity in the juice after processing. As the cloud in the final beverage may be solely derived from the juice, destruction of the cloud suspension could result not only in loss of turbidity but also in unsightly layering in the beverage. In extreme cases, this could be in the form of lumpy coagulated matter, commonly and humorously called scrambled eggs.
As mentioned previously, the juice of a ripe fruit has a dissolved solids content (Brix) characteristic of that particular fruit species. This is also the case for the acid content of a fruit juice. The levels of both of these items in the juice may vary in a narrow range depending on climatic and environmental conditions in which the fruit was grown as well as on the ripeness state of the fruit when harvested. In lemon juice, the Brix (corrected for acidity) of single-strength juice is, on average, 7.5 B, and the acidity is at around 5.0 (as citric acid anhydrous w w). Therefore, the Brix acid ratio of lemon juice will work out to 1.50. In another fruit juice, orange for example, the Brix acid ratio can be in the range of 8.0 to 12.0. The fruit juice processing industry together with international government agricultural and food organizations established the standards of Brix acid ratio specifications for most of the world's known edible fruits. The values established are expressed...
This book will guide you through the processes of juicing your way to better health. Learn all the savvy tips and tricks to maintain your health and good body for a bright future ahead. This includes tips on diet, exercise, sleeping habits and etc.