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Memory Professor System

Memory Professor system is a program that uses natural techniques which have gone through a trial, testing and proven to work efficiently and help you gain a strong memory power of about 500% within 30 days only. The program is also offering a guarantee of full money refund within 60-days of purchase which means that this program is secure and has zero risks associated with it hence making it an excellent investment to try. Kit Stevenson is offering a discount to the first 100 people who will purchase this product, and on top of that, he is offering six special bonuses to all the members who buy the memory professor program. There are many benefits associated with this program some of them being, gaining self-esteem, enhancing getting better grades, improving business and personal relationships, enhancing your brain power and finally helping you be in a position to make sound and beneficial business deals. With all these benefits, I highly recommend memory professor system program to everyone who has not yet tried because it is a risk-free method. Hurry up and grab your space while the discounts last. Read more here...

Memory Professor System Summary


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Author: Kit Stevenson
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The author presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this manual are precise.

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Attention and Working Memory

Working memory involves the temporary storage and rehearsal of information an example of working memory would be memorizing a phone number without writing it down. HIV infection is associated with decrements in working memory (Wood et al., 1998 Hin-kin et al., 2002b), which may contribute to other HIV-associated neuropsychological deficits. Working memory can be measured by tests such as Letter Number Sequencing (Wechsler, 1997), in which patients order increasingly longer strings of auditorily presented letters and numbers, and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) (Diehr et al., 2003), which involves adding numbers presented auditorily. Both of these tests have demographically adjusted norms.

Persistent neural activity in an object working memory model

As we have just demonstrated, the self-consistency equations whose solutions provide the firing rates of the different neural populations in the steady-states of the recurrent network can, in some cases, have multiple solutions for the same set of parameters and external inputs to the network. When this is the case, transient external inputs can switch the state of the network among its possible stationary solutions. Conceptually, the network can now function as a short-term or working memory system, as its state of activity is no longer uniquely specified by the 'static' variables of the system (cellular or network parameters, unspecific external inputs, etc) but also carries information about the recent history of transient inputs to the network. More generally, a recurrent network can display multi-stability, whereby a resting state of spontaneous activity coexists with multiple attractor states (stable neural firing patterns), each of which encodes a different sensory stimulus....

Disease State Diagnosis

Negative symptoms include a diminution or loss of normal function and include affective flattening, anhedonia, social withdrawal, lack of motivation and spontaneity, and alogia and avolition - poverty of thought and speech. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia begins before the onset of the psychosis and remains severe, with some worsening, throughout the illness. While the precise domains of cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia remain to be elucidated, schizophrenia is clearly associated with widespread, multifaceted impairments in cognitive function, including executive function, attention, processing, vigilance, verbal learning and memory, verbal and spatial working memory, semantic memory, and social cognition. Recent evidence suggests that cognitive impairment may be of equal or greater importance than positive or negative symptoms in predicting functional outcomes, such as work status, quality of life, and social problem solving.5 For...

The yAmino Butyric Acid GABA Hypothesis

G-Amino-butyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory transmitter in the CNS, and has many effects that are opposite to those of glutamate, some of which involve GABAergic inhibition of glutamate function. The GABA uptake inhibitor, CI-966 9, has been associated with psychotic episodes in humans,17 a similar phenotype to that seen with the psychotomimetics that block the effects of glutamate at the NMDA receptor. A role of GABA in the etiology of schizophrenia was first proposed in the early 1970s based on GABAergic regulation of DA neuronal function with a special focus on the role of GABA in working memory. GABA uptake sites are decreased in hippocampus, amygdala, and left temporal cortex in schizophrenics with some evidence of GABAa receptor upregulation18 and reductions in GABA interneurons.19 An extensive review of the use of benzodiazepines, the classical GABAA agonists, the GABAg agonist

Catechol Omethyltransferase

COMT is localized to chr22q11 where a microdeletion results in velocardiofacial syndrome (22qDS DiGeorge or Shprintzen syndrome), a genetic subtype of schizophrenia. The COMT gene exists in two versions Met158 and Val158, the former coding for a form of COMT that is less thermostable and thus has lower activity than the Val158. COMT is important for regulating DA but not norepinephrine (NE) levels in the prefrontal cortex.28 Val158Met heterozygotic mice which have high COMT activity and, correspondingly, low prefrontal cortex DA levels show greater tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the midbrain, indicative of increased DA synthetic capability. In human Val158 carriers, neuroimaging studies showed greater midbrain F-DOPA uptake than Met158 carriers, consistent with increased DA biosynthesis. DA levels in prefrontal cortex play a key role in cognitive function and high-activity Val158 is associated with poorer performance and 'inefficient' prefrontal cortex function in some but not all...

Transient Global Amnesia

Profound Semantic Loss, Manifest in Failure of Word Comprehension and Naming or Face and Object Recognition Preserved Phonology and Syntax, and Elementary Perceptual Processing, Spatial Skills, and Day-to-Day Memorizing. Significant impairment should be demonstrated on word comprehension and naming or famous face identification or object recognition tasks. It should be shown that poor scores arise at a semantic level and not at a more elementary level of verbal or visual processing by demonstrating that the patient can repeat words that are not understood, can match for identity, and can copy drawings of objects. Patients should demonstrate normal performance on two or more spatial tasks, such as dot counting and line orientation. Performance on formal memory tests (e.g., involving remembering words or faces) is compromised by patients' semantic disorder. Nevertheless, patients retain the ability to remember autobiographically relevant day-to-day events (e.g., that a grandchild visits...

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Neurocircuitry models of PTSD have focused on the interactions between the AMYG and the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Hypersensitivity and lack of habituation to repetitive nonthreatening stimuli characteristic of PTSD may be a result of decreased regulation of AMYG activity by the anterior cingulate cortex suggesting an impairment of processes mediating extinction to trauma-related stimuli, as well as decreased hippocampal function, implying an impaired ability to form appropriate contextual associations and dysfunctional memory processing with respect to trauma-related stimuli. mMRI studies of PSTD have focused primarily on the hippocampus. Reduced hippocampal volumes in Vietnam combat veterans have been reported and studies in adults with either childhood or adult traumatic experiences also support an association between reduced hippocampal volume and PTSD. Studies in pediatric populations, however, have failed to show reductions in hippocampal volumes, suggesting that...

Group II mGlu agonists

MGlu2 and mGlu3 are expressed in brain areas important for anxiety disorders, e.g., amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. mGlu2 receptors are located on glutamate-releasing nerve terminals where they suppress glutamate release, whereas mGlu3 is found both pre- and postsynaptically, and on glia. Activation of group II mGlus also suppresses the release of GABA, monoamines, and neuropeptides.125 The constrained glutamate analogs LY354740 and MGS 0028 (Figure 11a) are potent, selective agonists of mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors.124'126 Systemic administration of LY354740 produces anxiolytic effects in a range of animal models, including fear potentiated startle, EPM, and conflict tests. Where compared, the anxiolytic effects of these compounds are similar to those for standard BZs, but occur in the absence of sedation or ataxia. LY354740 may, however, disrupt memory processes in animals,127 although the compound reduced ketamine-induced deficits in working memory in humans.128 LY354740...

Pharmacological and lesion models

A major advantage of lesion models is that they produce a deficit in a short time span in readily accessible animals, i.e., rodents, providing the opportunity to evaluate NCEs rapidly. Deficits in attention and short-term memory resulting from cholinergic lesions can be measured postlesion using a variety of behavioral assays, e.g., delayed alternation in a T-maze or the Morris water maze. However, such cognitive deficits are of short duration and do not mimic the longer-term progressive dysfunction observed in AD. Also, the AD tombstones, plaques, and tangles are not observed, although an inflammatory response may occur.

Transcription Efficiency And Codon Usage Bias

Another pattern from the first part that is immediately obvious and interesting is that, for almost all codon families, the A-ending codon is used most often. This answers one question that we raised before. Let me refresh your memory just in case you forget. When we analyzed nucleotide frequencies of the same set of sequences, we noticed that A is the most frequent nucleotide in the Influenza A viruses. We proposed two possibilities for the preponderance of A. First, it might be caused by the preponderance of A-rich codons, e.g., Asn and Lys (which are coded by AAN codons), in the protein-coding gene. Alternatively, it might be caused by codon usage bias favoring A-ending codons for more efficient transcription (Xia 1996). By comparing the codon frequencies of the viruses with those from their hosts, we can conclude that both possibilities are likely true. The protein-coding genes in the viruses use significantly more amino acids coded by A-rich codons than those from the hosts, and...

Estrogen AD and Possible Mechanisms of Estrogen Induced Neuroprotection

Long-term use of ERT have the lowest risk.2 Gender differences were suggested as a possible explanation for the higher incidence of the familial AD in women that is also linked to the apoE-associated risk factor.5 In addition, Phillips and Sherwin32 showed that exogenous E2 maintains short-term memory in surgically-induced menopausal young women. Several levels of evidence demonstrated multiple sites of estrogen actions in the brain. The specific mechanism s by which estrogen reduces dementia are unclear, and they might be combined in order to be beneficial in improvement of clinical symptoms. Estrogen and several other estrogenic steroids which are contained in Premarin (the most common ERT drug) were also indicated as potential neurotrophins that increased survival and growth of hippocam-pal and cortical neurons in vitro.33 Direct actions of E2 and other estrogenic steroids on neurons occurred rapidly, suggesting involvement of membrane receptor(s) that mediate estrogen-induced...

Neuropsychological Battery Considerations

Neuropsychological assessment of the HIV patient targets subcortically mediated cognitive processes (psychomotor speed, attention working memory, learning and memory, and executive functioning). Below we review the important cognitive domains to assess in the presence of HIVand recommend tests to be used in the assessment. As important as the tests used are, the normative databases used with the tests are even more crucial because they determine impairment. With HIV currently affecting growing numbers of ethnic minorities (CDC, 2004), the cognitive assessment of HIVseropositive individuals has become more challenging.

Cognitive Mechanisms Of

Current models posit that psychopathological responses may be mediated by two core cognitive factors (1) maladaptive appraisals of the trauma and its aftermath, and (2) disturbances in autobiographical memory that involve impaired retrieval and strong associative memory (Ehlers & Clark, 2000). Consistent with this approach is evidence that people with ASD exaggerate both the probability of future negative events occurring and the adverse There is also evidence that people with ASD may manage trauma-related information differently from other trauma survivors. Specifically, individuals with ASD tend to avoid aversive information. One study employed a directed forgetting paradigm that required ASD, non-ASD, and non-trauma-exposed control participants to read a series of trauma-related, positive, or neutral words, after each presentation participants were instructed to either remember or forget the word (Moulds & Bryant, 2002). The finding that ASD participants recalled fewer...

Clinical Ratings Method

A clinical ratings approach to evaluating neuropsycho-logical impairment in patients with HIV was developed by the HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center (Heaton et al., 1994a). In this approach, test performances from a large battery of tests are grouped into cognitive domains (i.e., psychomotor functioning, attention and working memory) scores are then transformed into age-, education-, and, where appropriate, ethnicity-corrected standardized scores. Subsequently, clinical ratings are assigned to each cognitive domain by means of a scaled score ranging from 1 (above average) to 9 (severely impaired). A global score is then calculated based on review of domain ratings, with greater weight afforded to impaired domains and considerable leeway granted to premorbid level of functioning. Therefore, significant cognitive dysfunction is necessary before a person is labeled with generalized cognitive impairment. Finally, to meet criteria for an HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, the...

In Search and Discovery of Potential New Therapeutic Indications

Because wake and vigilance are essential requirements for attention, learning, and cognition, research on these topics has also been undertaken in animals. Modafinil was found to induce a faster learning rate in a serial spatial discrimination task, demonstrating an improvement of learning processes following acute75,76 and chronic administration in mice77 and facilitating performance on a delayed nonmatching to position swim task in rats.78 In healthy human volunteers without sleep deprivation, modafinil had subtle stimulating effects on maintenance and manipulation processes in relatively difficult and monotonous working memory tasks, especially in lower-performing subjects.79 In addition, in healthy volunteers, modafinil produced a selective improvement of neuropsychological task performance, attributable to an enhanced ability to inhibit prepotent responses, leading to a reduction of impulsive responding, that appears to be beneficial in the treatment of ADHD.80 Based on this...

Age Effects in Standard Reaction Time Paradigms

Reaction Time Old And Young

(2) RT increases as a function of the amount of information that has to be retained to complete the task or the task's demand on what is referred to as the working memory (WM). But what if we make a Brinley plot of mean RTs on the diverse RT paradigms described above, with different paradigms clearly making different demands on stimulus apprehension, perceptual discrimination, storage and retrieval of information from short-term memory (STM), and dual task conditions of storage processing trade-off involving working memory capacity Do the different cognitive task demands of these varied tasks interact differentially with age Figure 6.5 shows the Brinley plot for all 11 of the RT data points. It is seen that the mean RTs of the Old group are highly predictable from the mean RTs of the Young group, suggesting that a single global multiplicative factor determines the increase in RT with age regardless of the specific cognitive demands of the task. The difference of

Problems in Factor Analyzing RT Variables

This is probably the biggest problem in present factor analyses of ECTs. When multiple ECTs are used on the same group of subjects, theoretically nonessential task demands can be too varied for the latent traits to be clearly discernable. They are obscured by method variance. The response console, stimulus display screen, preparatory intervals, speed accuracy instructions, criteria for determining the number of practice trials, and the like, should all be held constant across the essential manipulated variables in the given ECT. Different ECTs should vary only in the conditions that essentially distinguish one type of ECT from another in terms of their specific cognitive demands, such as attention, stimulus discrimination, or retrieval of information from short-term memory (STM) or long-term memory (LTM). Ideally, method variance should be made as close to nil as possible. Essentially, in designing a factor analytic study of ECTs one must think in terms of revealing their hypothesized...

Physiological Effects

Much has been written about the amotivational syndrome, and it has remained a controversial entity (Lynskey & Hall, 2000). It is marked by apathy, poor concentration, social withdrawal, and loss of interest in achievements (Solowij, 1998). Because research in the topic is contradictory, it is unclear at this time whether marijuana induces amotivational attitudes and behavior or causes permanent, irreversible impairment in cerebral function. However, the general consensus is that it likely does not cause permanent cognitive damage. Still, individuals who are chronic users tend to smoke marijuana often and in high doses cannabis has a long half-life, and users can be thought to be chronically under the influence of marijuana or stoned. So marijuana clearly causes impairment in the acquisition of short-term memory, at least for the time an individual is intoxicated, although there is evidence of specific residual effects (Block, 1996 Pope & Yurgelun-Todd, 1996 Schwartz, 1991). If...

Introduction to Parallel Computing

Parallel computing roughly refers to involving multiple processors in solving a global computational task, where some kind of collaboration exists between the processors. The first motivation for adopting parallel computing is the wish of shortening the computation time. The second motivation, especially of relevance for memory-intensive computations such as solving PDEs, is the need of larger memory capacity than that of a single-processor computer. With respect to hardware, parallel computing relies on computing systems that in some way integrate multiple processors and have a total memory capacity equivalent to the sum of many single-processor memory units. There are many variants of such parallel computing systems. At one end of the spectrum, there exist so-called shared-memory parallel computers, on which there is a single global memory space shared equally by all the processors. We remark that the single global memory space on a shared-memory parallel computer is enabled either...

Realizing Cognition Using Fuzzy Neural Nets

The chapter presents various behavioral models of cognition, built with fuzzy neural nets for applications in man-machine interface, automated coordination and learning control systems. It starts with a simple model of a fuzzy neural net that mimics the activities of long term memory of the biological cognitive system. The model has the potential of both reasoning and automated learning on a common structure. The model is then extended with Petri nets to represent and reason with more complex knowledge of the real world. A second model presented in this chapter is designed for application in a learning control system. It emulates the task of the motor controller for the limb movements in the biological cognitive system. An example of the automated eye-hand coordination problem for robots has also been presented here with timed Petri net models. The chapter ends with a discussion of the possible application of the proposed models in a composite robotic system.

Phrase Completion and Sentence Continuation

It is also possible to use hierarchical ring architectures for representing strings of words, which I believe is probably how the human cortical language architecture is organized. As the words are loaded into the ring of modules, they are quickly removed in groups (phrases) and re-represented in modules at a higher conceptual level, leaving the lower-level modules free for capturing additional words. I believe that this is why humans can only instantly remember in working memory about 7 things 2 (Miller 1956) - we physically only have about seven modules at the word level. When required to remember a sequence of things, we repeatedly rehearse the sequence (to firmly store it in short-term memory) by traversing the ring from the beginning module (which is always the same one for each sentence or word sequence) to the last item and then back to the beginning. However, given the lack of limitations of computer implementations of confabulation architectures (at least conceptually), there...

Alcohol related disorders

Thiamine deficiency is responsible for the clinical manifestations (gaze paralysis, ataxia, nystagmus, and mental confusion) of Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff psychosis (retrograde amnesia, impaired short-term memory) seen in alcoholics.3 The morphologic features (seen in 1.7 to 2.7 of consecutive autopsies)11 include petechiae and pink discoloration of the mammillary bodies (Figure 2.4.2), hypothalamus, periventricular region of the thalamus, periaqueductal grey matter, and beneath the floor of the fourth ventricle.1 The lesions are bilateral and symmetric when present. These gross features are seen in only 50 of acute cases,12 therefore microscopic examination is essential. The lesions vary with the stage and severity of the deficiency. Acute lesions consist of dilated, congested capillaries with perivascular ball and ring hemorrhages and ischemic neuronal changes (Figure 2.4.3). Chronic lesions

Uffe Koppelhus Per Hellung Larsen and Vagn Leick 1 Introduction

Previous studies of the chemosensory behaviour of Tetrahymena have shown that this ciliate is chemoattracted to a range of different proteins, peptides, and amino acids (2). Using the so called two-phase assay (3) one can study the adaptative (temporal) element of the chemosensory response. Adaptation is a widespread feature of many chemotactic cells and is a temporal mechanism that represents a kind of short-term memory (4). Adaptation is here defined as a reversible elimination of the responsiveness of a cell caused by an adjustment of its sensitivity. This property reflects the ability of the cells to read and remember a certain concentration of a chemoattractant thereby repelling them from swimming towards lower concentrations (5). Adaptation might be studied using other experimental set-ups all based upon the cellular response of a chemotactic gradient established by diffusion (2). In the two-phase asay, a suspension of cells (the top phase) is gently placed on the top of a dense...

Exploration of Cognitive Capacity in Honeybees Higher Functions Emerge from a Small Brain

Such similarities in perceptual ability lead us to ask a number of fascinating questions about the bee's other capacities. For instance, what is the learning capacity of such a tiny brain How complex a task can a honeybee learn What do bees acquire, process, and memorize when they learn how to solve complex tasks How do honeybees generalize what they have acquired in the learning process What neural mechanisms underlie their complex behaviors

Bees Can Abstract General Properties of Patterns

We first asked whether honeybees can learn to abstract a particular attribute of a pattern, such as its orientation, without having to memorize the pattern in its entirety. An early paper by Wehner (1971) hinted that bees could indeed abstract pattern orientation in this way. This issue was pursued by van Hateren et al. (1990), who used a Y-maze (figure 2.1a) in conjunction with visual cues that were random grating patterns at different orientations (figure 2.1b). In the experiments, two stimuli were presented in the vertical plane, each at the end wall of one of the arms of the maze. The stimulus representing one of the orientations was associated with a reward of sugar water in another orientation it was not. During training, the positions of the stimuli were interchanged regularly, and the reward was moved along with the positive stimuli, to prevent the bees from simply learning to fly to a specific arm. Two features of the apparatus and training paradigm prevented the bees from...

The Two Basic Chronometric Variables RT and RTSD

This concept, which is prominent in comparing various RT paradigms, does not have a uni-vocal definition or a single objective unit of measurement independently of RT. It may even be premature to impose a too restrictive criterion for its scientifically useful meaning. In the present context, the term complexity refers to the information load of the given task, which is usually described in terms of (1) the number of task elements the subject must attend to (2) the degree of prior uncertainty about the required response (3) the degree of essential stimulus or response discrimination involved in the task (4) the degree of stimulus-response compatibility (5) the number of decisions that have to be made to achieve a correct response or (6) the amount of prior-learned information that must be retrieved from short- or long-term memory to make the correct response. Reliable measures of RT are highly sensitive to remarkably slight variations in any of these conditions of complexity. In...

Applications of Natural Language Understanding

Natural language understanding programs have wide usage starting from commercial software to high performance VLSI CAD tools design. In the long run it will be part and parcel of most of the software. It is mainly required as a front-end tool for communication with the users. One of the first successful applications of the natural language understanding program was in a 'question answering' system. In this system, a paragraph is first supplied to the machine, which constructs an internal representation of the paragraph and then matches the question part with the internal representation to answer it. Winograd's SHRDLU 9 system in this regard needs special mention. In database management systems, the natural language understanding program is equally useful for building front-end tools. The user may submit his query in plain English and the machine will answer him in English as well. In expert systems, natural language processing is very much useful for submitting many facts to the...

RT Tests Involving Retrieval of Information in Long Term Memory

This test paradigm, originated by Posner, Boies, Eichelman, and Taylor (1969), is intended as a measure of the speed of retrieval of highly overlearned verbal codes in long-term memory (LTM). It actually consists of two distinct discrimination tests. The difference between their mean RTs is the point of interest. The binary decision in every case is Same or Different. One task, labeled physical (P), requires discrimination (Same Different) between two letters of the alphabet based solely on their physical properties, e.g., the two members of the following letter pairs are all physically different Aa, Bb, AB, and ab, whereas the letter pairs AA, BB, aa, and bb are all physically the same. The other task, labeled name (N), requires discrimination (Same Different) between two letters based solely on the names of those letters, disregarding their physical properties, e.g., the two members of the letter pairs AA, BB. Aa and Bb are all the same, whereas AB, ab, Ab, and Ba are all different....

Short Term Memory Span

Memory processes are a good example of this. They have been subjected to chronometric study, probably more than any other class of variables (McNicol & Stewart, 1980). Various studies include short-term memory (STM), long-term memory (LTM), and retention loss following delayed recall and the effects of proactive and retroactive interference. Repetition or rehearsal of the information input through what Baddeley has termed the phonological loop consolidates fresh information for later recall, which is related to the rate of speed with which individuals can verbally articulate the items to be later recalled. This rehearsal speed of the stimulus input, therefore, is a time-constrained function of working memory by which the traces of newly input information in STM is consolidated. This is well illustrated in a large-sample developmental study by Kail and Park (1994) of children 7-14 years of age in the United States and Korea. A causal modeling analysis was based on the composite...

Neural Activity Regulates Synaptic Connections

The cAMP signaling pathway seems to be a primary bridge to the formation of long-term memories in fruit flies and mice. There are two cAMP-dependent transcription factors (CREB), one that activates gene expression and a second that represses it. Thus, when transgenic flies are bred to express the activator, they remember an odor with much less training. However, flies that express the repressor are unable to store long-term olfactory memories (Yin et al., 1994, 1995). The many experimental studies on CREB (in Aplysia, fly, mouse and rat) established that the nucleus was involved in long-term memory formation. This fact presented an interesting question How are these nuclear signals common to all synapses of a given neuron give rise to synapse-specific structural and functional modifications The emerging answer seems to involve the pumilio staufen pathway (Dubnau et al., 2003), which is involved in subcellular transport of mRNA and the local control of protein translation. The genetic...

Long Term Memory Consolidation Retrieval and Forgetting

When the amount of information to be retrieved exceeds the immediate memory span (for a given type of stimuli), rehearsal of the input over repeated trials becomes necessary. At this point, we cross the fuzzy boundary between STM and LTM. It is exemplified by the classical serial rote-learning paradigm in which the subject must memorize (up to a given criterion of accurate recall of the items in the presented order), such as a list of words, numbers, nonsense syllables, or other stimuli that clearly exceeds the subject's immediate memory span. This acquisition process is highly time dependent in two fundamental ways (1) the item learning rate (and hence the number of trials needed to attain a given criterion of mastery) is systematically affected by the experimenter-controlled presentation rate of the items on each learning trial and (2) in the absence of interference occurring shortly after the last learning trail, and without further practice, the newly learned material becomes...

Automatic Retrieval of Basic Skills from Long Term Memory

The automatizing of a basic cognitive skill involves short-circuiting its defining operations, thereby greatly quickening its retrieval. The sheer recall of simple arithmetic number facts, such as adding, subtracting, or multiplying single-digit numbers, which are memorized and practiced repeatedly requires a conceptually much less complex level of cognition than understanding abstractly the mathematical operations that define addition, subtraction, and multiplication. It is important to know these operations so that they can be applied when needed in a given problem. That granted, it is also useful, and often crucial, to have speedy access to specific number facts stored in LTM, especially in solving complex thought problems, in which it is advantageous when several of successive operations can be performed within the time span of working memory. Bright pupils, who otherwise have no problem grasping mathematical principles, can have difficulty with arithmetic thought problems and...

Summary of the Theory

The theory hypothesizes that items of knowledge are immediately established on a temporary basis when a novel, meaningful, co-occurrence of symbol pair activity occurs during a period of wakefulness (assuming that those symbols are equipped with the necessary axonal paths with which a link can be established). If this short-term memory link is selected for deliberate rehearsal during the next period of sleep, it gets promoted to the status of a medium-term memory. If this medium-term memory link is revisited on near-term subsequent sleep periods it then gets promoted to a long-term memory, which will typically last as long as the involved tissue remains patent and not re-deployed.

Normative and Ipsative Applications

Overall average of the scores itself might be of diagnostic significance in its own right, the particular profile of high and low scores on the separate tests (e.g., different RT paradigms) offers the possibility of greater diagnostic specificity. But the kind of research that would be most informative regarding this possibility has not yet been done. First of all, it would call for a factor analysis in a normally diverse population, of a number of standard RT paradigms to determine the extent to which they reflect different latent factors besides the large general factor, or g, that appears to be common to all RT paradigms. To make this determination, it would require at least three forms of tests intended to measure the main information processing feature of each paradigm. For example, say we have three or more different forms or stimulus modalities of (a) the inspection time (IT) paradigm for measuring stimulus intake speed, (b) the Hick paradigm measuring RT of stimulus...

Neuropsychological Impact Of Multiple Substance Use Disorders

As compared with non-polysubstance-using drug abusers, those with multiple SUDs demonstrate the greatest degree of chronic neuropsychological impairment and recover the least function with long-term abstinence (Beatty et al., 1997 Medina, Shear, Schafer, Armstrong, & Dyer, 2003). This may be due in part to the increased cumulative exposure of the brain to drugs and alcohol Multiple substance users tend to use as much of a particular substance (e.g., alcohol or cocaine) as those who use only alcohol or cocaine (Selby & Azrin, 1998). Selby and Azrin (1998) conducted a comprehensive neuropsychological battery with 355 prison inmates classified by DSM-IV criteria into four groups those with alcohol use disorders, cocaine use disorders, multiple SUDs, and no history of SUD. The multiple SUDs and the alcohol groups demonstrated significant impairment on most measures compared to the cocaine or no-drug groups, but the multiple SUDs group performed worse than the cocaine alone, alcohol...

Stability of Cognitive Styles Associated With Bipolar Spectrum Disorders

Were more self-critical than the controls. The remitted unipolar women did not differ from the controls on dependency, whereas the remitted bipolar women were actually less dependent than the controls. Thus, only self-criticism was exhibited by both currently depressed and remitted unipolar and bipolar women. Scott, Stanton, Garland, and Ferrier (2000) found that 41 remitted bipolar inpatients exhibited more dysfunctional attitudes, greater sociotropy, greater overgeneral recall on an autobiographical memory task, and fewer solutions on a social problem-solving task than did 20 normal controls. Finally, as part of their Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders (LIBS) Project, Alloy, Abramson, and colleagues (Alloy, Abramson, Walshaw, et al., 2004 Alloy, Abram-son, Grandin, et al., 2004) compared the cognitive styles and self-schema processing of 206 euthymic bipolar spectrum (Bipolar II, Cyclothymia, Bipolar NOS) and 214 demographically matched normal participants. The...

Parallelism at Knowledge Representational Level

A production system consists of a set of rules, one or more working memory and an inference engine to manipulate and control the firing sequence of the rules. The efficiency of a production system can be improved by firing a number of rules concurrently. However, two rules where the antecedents of the second rule and the consequents of the first rule have common entries are in pipeline and therefore should not be fired in parallel. A common question, which may be raised is how to select the concurrently firable rules. A simple and intuitive scheme is to allow those rules in parallel, which under sequential control of firing yield the same inferences. For a formal approach for identifying the concurrently firable rules, the following definitions 3 are used.

Implementation of Knowledge

This simultaneous input from the neurons, causing them to send strong output to all of the neurons to which they in turn send axons. In effect, the first step of the link transmission starts with the tens to hundreds of active neurons representing symbol and ends with many thousands of excited transponder neurons, which also (collectively) uniquely represent the symbol In effect, transponder neurons momentarily amplify the size of the symbol representation. It is hypothesized by the theory that this synfire chain (Abeles 1991) of activation does not propagate further because only active (or highly excited) neurons can launch such a process, and while the transponder neurons are excited, they are not active or highly excited (i.e., active, or highly excited, neurons - a rare state that can only exist during and following a confabulation information-processing operation - are the only ones that can unconditionally excite other neurons). However, as with transponder neurons, if a neuron...

Compartments Of The Jugular Foramen

Classically, the jugular foramen has been divided into two compartments, as described by Hovelacque in 1934.7 Later investigators called these two compartments the pars venosum (posterolaterally) and the pars nervosa (anteromedially).4'8'9 These names are misleading, as the pars venosum contains the jugular bulb, the posterior meningeal artery, as well as CN X and XI, and the pars nervosum contains CN IX and the inferior petrosal sinus. In 1997, Katsuta et al.2 divided the jugular foramen into three compartments (1) the posterolateral sigmoid part (sigmoid sinus), (2) the interjugular or neural part (CN IX anteriorly, and CN X, XI posteriorly), and (3) the anteromedial petrosal part (inferior petrosal sinus). Their three-compartment (two venous and one neural or interjugu-lar) classification system was based on observations made in 32 dry skulls and 33 cadaveric jugular foramina.2 The importance of compartmentalization of the jugular foramen is not to memorize a particular...

Desiderata for a Standardized Chronometric Apparatus

Explicit uniform instructions for taking the particular ECT would be given by the examiner. A set number of practice trials on the task would precede the test trials. When it is questionable that the subject has understood the task, instructions are repeated and additional practice trials are given and recorded. Practice trials should be typical of the RS items used in the test trials and should be presented (or repeated) in a different random sequence to prevent the subject's memorizing nonessential features of the task (e.g., the serial order of the RS). All practice trials are recorded as such.

Selfconsistent theory of recurrent cortical circuits

A cortical microcircuit receives afferent inputs and sends efferent outputs downstream, thereby information processing is carried out in a 'feedforward' fashion. At the same time, interesting computations may be accomplished by horizontal or recurrent synaptic connections within the local network. The relative importance of feedforward versus recurrent processing is likely to be different for each specific task, and vary from one cortical area to another. In the primary visual cortex (V1), recurrent synaptic connections are quite abundant 76 their functional importance (such as to the generation of orientation selectivity) has been the subject of intense debate 39, 111 . Recently, there is growing interest in the recurrent networks of association cortical areas, such as the parietal cortex or prefrontal cortex. This interest was primarily motivated by the observation of 'working memory neurons' in these cortices. In experiments when an animal is required to remember a transient...

Standardized Elementary Cognitive Tasks

The RT tasks, most appropriate for standardization at present are the classic paradigms most of them are described in Chapter 2 (also see subject index). These tests are intended to measure perceptual intake speed (IT) simple and choice RT RT as a function of information load measured in bits (the Hick paradigm) simple discrimination RT (odd-man-out) scanning speed in short- and long-term memory (the Sternberg and Posner paradigms) and the speed of simple visual scanning (Neisser paradigm) the dual-task paradigm, the semantic verification test (SVT), running-memory tests based on various classes of stimuli verbal, numerical, abstract spatial, pictorial, and facial stimuli.

Stability of the persistent activity state

Behavior of an object working memory network. (A). Schematic representation of the network. Circles represent the different sub-populations. Labels on the arrows indicate the type of synaptic connection between them. The width of the arrows qualitatively represents the strength of the corresponding synaptic connections. (B). Bifurcation diagram showing the onset of bistability as a function of the strength of the connections within a selective sub-population relative to a baseline. Lines are the prediction from the mean-field version of the model, with solid (dashed) lines representing stable (unstable) steady states. Squares (spontaneous activity) and circles (elevated persistent activity state) are results from simulations of the spiking network (continued). Behavior of an object working memory network. (A). Schematic representation of the network. Circles represent the different sub-populations. Labels on the arrows indicate the type of synaptic connection between them. The width...

An Application in a Soccer Playing Robot

The player robot (hereafter player only) of a team, say A, has to recognize i) the ball, ii) the team mates, iii) opposite players and iv) the goal post of the opponent team B. After taking each snap shot of the field, the sensory information acquired is saved in working memory of the robot. This helps the robot construct higher level knowledge from the acquired information. An example that illustrates the construction of knowledge is the automated learning behavior of the losing team from the possible goals of the winning team. For instance consider the teams consisting of fewer members only. Now if the opponent team scores successive goals from a fixed zone on

Manifestations of Attention

The three major goals of attention listed here are indicative of the ways that atten-tional processing is observed or inferred in behavioral and cognitive situations. When a judgment of an object in a field cluttered with salient objects is made correctly, or one of a set of alternative responses is chosen, it is inferred that selective attention has successfully removed or attenuated the influence of the extraneous and confusing information. For example, identifying the center letter in the word COG requires that information arising from the locations near the center letter be prevented from entering the module (or sets of modules) that performs a judgment of identification. If selection by location does not occur, the entire word COG will presumably enter the identification module and be identified instead of the letter O. On the action side of cognition, selection of information from working memory is assumed to occur when pressing a particular function key on a computer keyboard...

Summary and future directions

In this chapter, we have presented analytical mean-field techniques that can be used to study the collective properties of large networks of spiking neurons. In analyzing the self-consistent steady-states of these networks, we observed that the self-consistency equations have sometimes multiple stable states. This leads quite naturally to the the interpretation of these networks as models of working memory systems. The methods discussed here help to understand in detail in which conditions multistability can be achieved in large networks of spiking neurons. The results that have been discussed are of course only the current status of a rapidly growing field. Extensions of both the mean-field techniques and of network architectures for working memory are either already done, under way, or should be done in the near future. We discuss here several of these possible extensions. More realistic synaptic dynamics. The mean-field description of realistic synaptic interactions can be improved...

The Operation of Memory Systems in the Brain

16.2 Functions of the hippocampus in long-term memory 16.3 Short-term memory systems 16.3.1 Prefrontal cortex short-term memory networks, and their relation to temporal and parietal perceptual networks 16.3.2 Computational details of the model of short-term memory 16.3.3 Computational necessity for a separate, prefrontal cortex, short-term memory system 16.3.4 Role of prefrontal cortex short-term memory systems in visual search and attention 16.3.5 Synaptic modification is needed to set up but not to reuse short-term memory systems

Adult Adhd Animal Model

The biological underpinnings of ADHD focus largely on monoamine neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine and norepinephrine. Imaging studies show decreased activation in frontal brain regions (areas involved in attention and working memory). Genetic studies indicate heritability for ADHD of about 70 . Genetic variants related to genes coding for dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmission may confer susceptibility to ADHD. Stimulant medications, which are still among the most effective treatments for ADHD, act on the dopaminergic system.

Cognitive Models Of Ptsd

Chemtob, Roitblat, Hamada, Carlson, and Twentyman's (1988) hierarchical cognitive action theory extended information-processing theory by proposing that for individuals with PTSD, these fear networks (or threat-response structures) are at least weakly activated at all times, guiding their interpretation of ambiguous events as potentially dangerous. More recently, Ehlers and Clark (2000) proposed a cognitive model of the persistence of PTSD that can also be viewed as an extension of earlier information-processing theories. This cognitive model suggests that PTSD becomes chronic when traumatized individuals appraise the traumatic event or its sequelae in a way that leads to a sense of serious, current threat (e.g., Nowhere is safe If I think about the trauma, I will go mad). A second factor proposed by this model as causally related to the persistence of PTSD are changes in autobiographical memory similar to those proposed by earlier information-processing theorists (e.g., strong...

Dopamine transporter DAT knockout mouse

Impaired cognitive function is also evident in DAT knockout mice. In a spatial working memory test using a radial arm maze, knockout mice were essentially unable to acquire the test conducted over 21 sessions. Knockout mice also had significantly higher preservation errors compared to wild-type mice and these errors remained elevated for the duration of the study, suggesting that the knockouts had difficulty suppressing inappropriate responses.43

Demersion Factors Of Individual Difference

E., & Boyle, M. O. (2005). Working memory and intelligence The same or different constructs Psychological Bulletin, 131, 30-60. Anderson, J. R. (1983). Retrieval of information from long-term memory. Science, 220, 25-30. Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working memory. New York Oxford University Press. Baddeley, A. D., Thompson, N., & Buchanan, N. (1975). Word length and the structure of short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Behavior, 14, 575-589. Barrett, L. F., Tugade, M. M., & Engle, R. W. (2004). Individual differences in working memory capacity and dual process theories of mind. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 553-573. Beier, M. E., & Ackerman, P. L. (2005). Working memory and intelligence Different constructs. Reply to Oberauer et al. (2005) and Kane et al. (2005). Psychological Bulletin, 131, 72-75. Bull, R., & Johnston, R. S. (1997). Children's arithmetical difficulties Contributions from processing speed, item identification, and...


Construct validity means that the psychological processes claimed to be measured are, in fact, what are being assessed. For instance, it is essential to be confident that a poor score on a neuropsychological test of memory capacity is due to a central nervous system (CNS) disorder and is not spurious. Hence, utility of a particular instrument depends on its capacity to evaluate accurately the process intended to be measured.

Procedural Knowledge

In the proceeding section I described how conceptual (including both semantic and spatial) knowledge is stored in the brain. Many skills or special talents, however, are not based on stores of conceptual knowledge. As a child you might have learned to ride a bike. If I asked you how to ride a bike you might be able to tell me that to propel the bike forward, you push the pedals forward and downward alternating between your left and right foot. You might also be able to tell me that if you want to go left you turn the handlebars to the left and vice versa. The most difficult part of learning to ride a bike, however, is learning how to keep your balance, and although after several minutes you might be able to explain to me how you do this, when you ride a bike, even after decades of not having ridden one, you do not keep your balance by using stored conceptual knowledge. Rather you rely on what is called procedural memory. In a classical study, Corkin (1968) studied the episodic and...


Declarative or explicit memory (i.e., memory for facts and events) can be consciously accessed and depends on intact functioning of the medio-basal portion of the temporal lobe. The duration of information storage may be relatively short (short-term, immediate, and working memory) or long (long-term memory). Verbal (telephone number) or visuospatial information (how to find a street) can be directly recalled from short-term memory. The entorhinal cortex plays a key role in these memory functions all information from cortical regions (frontal, temporal, parietal) travels first to the entorhinal cortex and then, by way of the parahippocampal and perirhinal cortex, to the hippocampus. There is also a reciprocal projection from the hippocampus back to the entorhinal cortex. Long-term memory stores events of personal history that occurred at particular times (episodic memory for a conversation, one's wedding day, last year's holiday orbitofrontal cortex) as well as conceptual,...


This is a crucial part of the evaluation and needs to be done in a systematic and comprehensive and non-threatening manner. The initial aspects have to do with observation as described above in the section on general appearance, manner, andattitude,observingfor level of alertness, consciousness, confusion, fluctuation, somnolence, or stupor. Careful observation may reveal perseveration on words, numbers, or actions. Perseveration may be evident in the absence of hearing impairment when the patient responds to a prior question more than one time as if he or she had not heard the following question. Specific questions as to orientation can be approached in an ego-supportive manner and can be asked as part of the routine. Memory is best tested by observing the patient's ability to provide his or her medical history in an organized manner and asking direct and specific questions about onset, course, and treatments. If a patient spontaneously reveals that memory is a problem, this lead can...


People infected with HIV may experience a flulike illness within a month or two of exposure to the virus many have no symptoms. This symptom-free period lasts from a few months to a decade, although the virus is actively multiplying, infecting, and killing immune system cells during this time. The only sign of this virulent activity may be a decline in blood levels of CD4 cells from a normal level of about 1,000. Once a person's CD4-cell count falls below 200, he or she is considered to have AIDS. By that time, other signs of the immune system's deterioration have appeared swollen glands, lack of energy, weight loss, frequent fevers and sweats, persistent or frequent yeast infections, skin rashes, short-term memory loss, frequent and severe herpes infections, or a painful nerve disease called shingles.

Sex Hormones

In addition, there is evidence that hormones such as androgens and estrogens might influence cognition, even postnatally. For example, Maki, Rich, and Rosenbaum (2002) studied 16 young women during two different stages of their menstrual cycle. During the follicular stage of the menstrual cycle, both estrogen and progesterone are low, and during the midluteal phase, both are high. These investigators found that whereas explicit memory was unchanged during the high estrogen phase, visuospatial functions were not as well-performed as during the low estrogen phase. Choi and Silverman (2002) studied the relationships between route-learning strategies and circulating testosterone and estrogen in a large population of students by obtaining salivary assays from the students. They found that testosterone levels were positively correlated with the use of route-learning strategies in men, but not in women. In addition, Wisniewski (1998) compared the spatial ability of hypogonadal men to normal...

Language Hierarchies

Obviously, when the conclusion action principle branching capability is combined with an ability to store and retrieve data (e.g., using short-term, medium-term, long-term memory, or working memory), the cognitive brain passes the test of being, at least conceptually, capable of universal computation in the Turing sense. However, the very limited RAM memory or tape memory available for immediate reading and writing probably limits the value of this capability. Certainly, as demonstrated in Chap. 4, logical reasoning in Aristotelian information environments is carried out directly by confabulation (cogency maximization), without need for any recourse to computer principles. Nonetheless, a human with a paper and pencil (to supplement the extremely limited RAM memory available in the brain) can easily learn to carry out thought processes that will accurately simulate operation of a computer. However, such


Over the past half-century, psychologists have offered the following surprising variety of descriptions of the attention process a filter (Broadbent, 1958), effort (Kahneman, 1973), a control process of short-term memory (Shiffrin & Schneider, 1977), resources (Shaw, 1978), orienting (Posner, 1980), conjoining object attributes (Treisman & Gelade, 1980), a spotlight (Tsal, 1983), a gate (Reeves & Sperling, 1986), a zoom lens (C. W Eriksen & St. James, 1986), both selection and preparation (LaBerge & Brown, 1989), and as intensified activity in cortical columns


Zhang et al. (1996) also examined the ability of bees to learn to negotiate unmarked mazes (figure 2.11a). Here bees were trained step-by-step through the entire maze, from the entrance to the reward box. After 5 days of training, the bees had indeed learned to negotiate the maze, although their performance was poorer than when they followed a colored cue. Nevertheless, their performance was better than that of a control group. Examples of the bees' performance in two mazes are shown in tests 6 and 7 of figure 2.11b. Presumably the bees learned the mazes by memorizing the sequence of turns that had to be made at specific distances (or box counts) along the route. There is evidence that bees use visual odometry to estimate the distance they have flown (Srinivasan et al. 1997, 2000), and that they are able to count landmarks en route to a goal (Chittka and Geiger, 1995). We have seen that bees' performance in unmarked mazes is not as good as in mazes with visual cues that indicate the...

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Synapse strengthening - the fundamental storage mechanism of cortical knowledge. A A weak, unreliable, unstrengthened vestigial synapse making a connection from a transponder neuron axon to a target neuron dendrite. The theory hypothesizes that roughly 99 of human cortical synapses with this connectivity are vestigial. B the same synapse after learning (i.e., the progression from short-term memory to medium-term memory to long-term memory has been completed). Now, the synapse has blossomed into three parallel synapses, each physically much larger than the original one. This multi-synapse (perhaps what has been recently termed a ribbon synapse) is more reliable and has an efficacy ranging from perhaps 30 to 50 times that of the original unstrengthened synapse (learning always yields a great increase in efficacy - the theory posits that there are no such knowledge storage synapses which are only slightly strengthened)11 Fig. 8.7. Synapse strengthening - the fundamental storage...

Goals of Attention

The second class of goals is an increase in the speed of perceptions and executions of actions (internal and external), by preparing the system to process these stimuli and or actions. Examples in perception are the speeded identification of an object, which is produced by preparing to perceive the shape, color, and or motion of the object (e.g., a food object or a predator) examples in actions are the speeded assembly of action plans when the form of the response is anticipated in advance (e.g., choosing words to express a sentence, or preparing to process a rapid series of displays on a trial of an experiment). Preparations for perceptions and actions may be accompanied by sustaining their components in working memory so that the components may be accurately and quickly converted to appropriate executive commands as events unfold.

Figure 156

An example of the effect of changing the effective time constant of excitation on the stability of persistent activity is shown in Figure 15.7, for the object-working memory network described above. Remember that in this network, GABAaR- mediated inhibition has a time constant of 10 ms, and AMPAR- and NMDAR-mediated excitation have time constants of 2 ms and 100 ms respectively. In the Figure, the temporal course of the average activity of a sub-population of selective cells after the application of a transient excitatory input is shown, as the relative contributions of AMPA and NMDA receptors at each excitatory synapse is varied systematically, thus taking the network from a scenario in which excitation is slower than inhibition to one in which it is faster. When the AMPA NMDA ratio of the charge entry per unitary EPSC is 0.1 (measured at V -55 mV, near threshold), the average activity is fairly constant in time and shows only small amplitude fluctuations which do not destabilize the...

Learning To Remember

Memory is usually divided into two general types recollection of facts (things that can be stated, or declarative memory) and recollection of skills (things that can be performed, or procedural memory). Humans with focal brain injuries are often found to have specific learning and memory deficits (Milner et al., 1998). For example, people with extensive damage to the limbic system are completely unable to recall new facts, yet they can learn and remember new motor tasks. Exceptionally rapid learning or memorization has sometimes been mistaken for intelligence. In fact, human brilliance is often specialized a knack for game theory coupled to rapid learning of spatial patterns might allow one person to be a champion bridge player, while a taste for chewing tobacco coupled to robust motor learning can produce a major league pitcher. Therefore, it is not too surprising that clinical measures of learning and memory are often difficult to reconcile with the broad patterns of human behavior....

Mental Retardation

Very short-term memory (VSTM), STM and LTM, and an Executive that governs the deployment of the lower-order modules for the execution of a given cognitive task. The modules are related temporally in terms of the order in which they come into play in processing stimulus input. Thus, if module number 1 in the temporal order is defective or inefficient, all of the higher-order modules (2, 3, etc.) are thereby handicapped. Hence, the degree of severity of the effect of a weakness in a given module depends mainly on whether the module comes into play earlier or later in the temporal order of information processing.


Several dictionaries, such as Webster's, define genius as the possessor of an inclination or talent. Most intelligence tests assess a variety of skills. For example, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Wechsler, 1981) assesses domains such as language (e.g., definitions), visual-spatial skills (e.g., block design), and working memory (digit-span and digit-symbol tests). There are high-functioning autistic people (savants) who have much better working memories than do normal people but have low IQs because they perform poorly on other parts of this test. There are children with developmental language learning disorders who often perform much better on the visual-spatial tests than they do on the verbal tests. To be creative, a person has to have skills and knowledge in the domain in which she or he is creative, but in other domains his or her skills may be average or below average. Most important, the possession of special skills or talents does not ensure that a person will use...

Unmet Medical Need

From a research perspective, there is a need for objective diagnostic tools and indicators to predict which drug will be the most effective therapy for a given patient. Approximately 70 of children with ADHD respond positively to stimulants as first-line therapy. Additionally, roughly two-thirds of children who do not respond to the first stimulant usually respond to another type (i.e., Adderall or methylphenidate, or vice versa). Hence, the total response rate appears to be about 90 . Overall, studies indicate that multiple unrelated pharmacological agents are efficacious in treating ADHD across the lifespan, with efficacious agents sharing noradrenergic and dopaminergic mechanisms of action. Stimulants are most effective in reducing the hyperactivity in ADHD but less effective in addressing some of the working memory, organization, and planning (i.e., 'executive function') deficits characteristic of ADHD.94 Research also suggests that the impulsivity and or aggression associated...


Functional imaging and brain lesion studies have repeatedly demonstrated that the lateral frontal lobes play a critical role in what has been termed executive functions, such as managing the allocation of resources, mediating goal-oriented behaviors, as well as working memory. Thus, it is not surprising that in many cognitive tasks these frontal areas would show activation. On the basis of studies of patients who underwent frontal lobotomies for the treatment of mental illness, researchers have repeatedly demonstrated that ablation of the frontal lobe does not severely influence performance on standardized intelligence tests (Valenstein, 1973). Thus, factors other

Alzheimers disease

DSM-IV-TR defines subtypes of AD With Early Onset (< 65 years) With Late Onset ( > 65 years) With Delusions With Depressed Mood Uncomplicated and or With Behavioral Disturbance (e.g., wandering). In addition to memory impairment, diagnosis can include aphasia (deterioration in language function), agnosia (impaired object recognition), and apraxia (impairment in motor activity execution). AD is a disease of slow onset and gradual decline. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), characterized by isolated episodes of long-term memory impairment, is thought to be the precusor of AD as 40-60 of MCI patients progress to AD within 3-4 years.

Production Systems

'Production systems' is one of the oldest techniques of knowledge representation. A production system includes a knowledge base, represented by production rules, a working memory to hold the matching patterns of data that causes the rules to fire and an interpreter, also called the inference engine, that decides which rule to fire, when more than one of them are concurrently firable. On firing of a rule, either its new consequences are added to the working memory or old and unnecessary consequences of previously fired rules are dropped out from the working memory. The addition to and deletion from working memory depends on the consequent (then) part of the fired rule. Addition of new elements to the working memory is required to maintain firing of the subsequent rules. The deletion of data elements from the working memory, on the other hand, prevents a rule from firing with the same set of data. This chapter provides a detailed account of production systems, its architecture and...

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