Abbreviations

ACA = anticardiolipin antibody

ACLE = acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus

ACR = American College of Rheumatology

ADCC = antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

ANA = antinuclear antibody

APC = antigen-presenting cell

APS = antiphospholipid syndrome

ARA = American Rheumatism Association

BCR = B-cell receptor

BLE = bullous lupus erythematosus

CCLE = chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus cDNA = complementary DNA

CHLE = chilblain lupus erythematosus

CHS = contact hypersensitivity

CI = confidence interval

CLE = cutaneous lupus erythematosus

CR = complement receptor

CS = corticosteroids

CTLA-4 = cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activation molecule-4

DC = dendritic cell

DEJ = dermoepidermal junction

DIF = direct immunofluorescence

DLE = discoid lupus erythematosus

DM = dermatomyositis ds-DNA = double-stranded DNA

DTH = delayed-type hypersensitivity

EADV = European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology

EBV = Epstein-Barr virus

ELISA = enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EM = erythema multiforme

ESR = erythrocyte sedimentation rate

FasL = Fas ligand

FITC = fluorescein isothiocyanate

G-6-PD = glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

GC = glucocorticoid

GVH = graft-vs-host

HLA = human leukocyte antigen

HUVS = hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis

ICAM-1 = intercellular adhesion molecule-1

ICLE = intermittent cutaneous lupus erythematosus

IFN = interferon

IL = interleukin iNOS = inducible nitric oxide synthase

IPF = immune protection factor

LAT = linker for activation of T cells

LBT = lupus band test

LE = lupus erythematosus

LEP = lupus erythematosus profundus

LET = lupus erythematosus tumidus

LFA-1 = lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1

LFT = liver function test

LP = lichen planus

MHC = major histocompatibility complex

MMF = mycophenolate mofetil

MNC = mononuclear cell

MPF = mutation protection factor mRNA = messenger RNA

NFAT = nuclear factor of activated T cell

NKT = natural killer cell

NLE = neonatal lupus erythematosus

NZB = New Zealand Black

NZW = New Zealand White

OR = odds ratio

PABA = p-aminobenzoic acid p-ANCAs = antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies with a perinuclear pattern

PCT = porphyria cutanea tarda

PDC = plasmacytoid dendritic cell

PPD = purified protein derivative

PS = phosphatidylserine

PLE = polymorphous light eruption

PNM = papular and nodular mucinosis

RAR = retinoid acid receptors

REM = reticular erythematous mucinosis

RES = reticuloendothelial system

RoRNP = Ro ribonucleoprotein

RXR = retinoid x receptors

SBC = sunburn cell

SCID = severe combined immunodeficient SCLE = subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus SLAM = Systemic Lupus Activity Measure SLE = systemic lupus erythematosus

SLEDAI = Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index snRNP = small nuclear ribonucleoprotein

SS = Sjogren's syndrome ss-DNA = single-stranded DNA

T4N5 = T4 endonuclease V

TCR = T-cell receptor

TNF = tumor necrosis factor

UV = ultraviolet

VCAM-1 = vascular adhesion molecule-1 VSV = vesicular stomatitis virus

Part I

Introduction

CHAPTER 1

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