Discoid Lupus Erythematosus of the Oral Mucosa

DLE of the oral mucosa is not an infrequent finding. It begins as one or a few round, well-demarcated erythematous plaques with patchy and streaky white hyperkeratosis, most often of the buccal mucosa, the (lower) lips, and the hard palate, that often turn into erosions and even ulcers. Lesions tend to be symptomless. Involvement of the conjunctival mucosa occurs much less often and may lead to ectropium and scarring (differential diagnoses: cicatricial pemphigoid, chlamydial conjunctivitis, and basal cell carcinoma).

Lichen planus is set apart from mucosal DLE by its greater extent, its symmetrical distribution, and its (at least in part) reticulated appearance. Patients with mucosal lichen planus commonly exhibit lichen planus of the skin as well. Erosive lichen planus is usually accompanied by lesions of classic oral lichen planus. Erosions are often extensive, superficial, covered with fibrin, with irregular outlines, and painful. The sites most often involved are the buccal mucosa, the lateral aspects of the tongue, and the lip mucosa.

Plane leukoplakias are hyperkeratotic plaques of the mucosa, with regular outlines and a tylotic appearance, that are most often caused by chronic frictional trauma. The cause of the lesion is usually obvious, for example, ill-fitting dentures. Plane leuko-

plakias are not or are only minimally inflamed. Premalignant leukoplakias have an irregular outline and an irregular, at times verrucous, surface; they progress to squa-mous cell carcinomas, which may first appear as irregular red erosions (often localized to the floor of the oral cavity).

Recurrent aphthous ulcers of the oral mucosa have a typical morphology: they represent most often small, round, and multiple ulcers covered by a white slough of fibrin and debris, usually bounded by an erythematous rim. Clinical differential diagnosis of a single lesion from DLE may be difficult, but the history of frequent recurrences, painfulness, and spontaneous clearing within days facilitate the diagnosis.

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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