Characteristically, DDCs express the blood clotting enzyme factor XIII (Cerio et al. 1990) and several surface markers, such as HLA-DR, but lack the typical LC markers CD1a, Birbeck granules, and ATPase, suggesting a closer relation of DDCs to macrophages than to other DCs (Headington 1986, Teunissen et al. 1997).

Another more detailed study showed that normal skin contains at least three separate populations of DDCs by immunophenotypic analysis using a broad panel of 45 different antibodies based on the expression of blood clotting enzyme factor XIIIa that have distinctive phenotypic markers and immunologic capabilities (Nestle et al. 1993). By triple color staining, the relative distribution of factor XIIIa+ DDCs is as follows: subset 1 (65%-70% of total DDCs) expresses neither CD1a nor CD14; subset 2 (15%-20% of total DDCs) expresses CD1a but not CD14, and subset 3 (10%-15% of total DDCs) expresses CD14 but not CD1a.

Anti-Aging Report

Anti-Aging Report

When people generally think about anti-aging, they tend to think about the visible signs of wear and tear, those tell-tale wrinkles, age spots and their developing jowls. No-one wants to get old, let alone feel and look older than their years and anti-aging treatments are becoming so sought after by both men and women that the skincare market is colossal, but what really works?

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