Laboratory Testing and Progress to Dissemination of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Approximately 15% of patients with CLE eventually progress to SLE (Rowell 1984). Several studies have been undertaken to determine the clinical and laboratory features that may predict such a pattern of disease progression. Clinically, patients with generalized DLE are at higher risk of developing SLE, oftentimes with more severe manifestations (Callen 1982). Laboratory tests associated with the development of SLE in patients with DLE include severe leukopenia, unexplained anemia, false-positive serologic tests for syphilis, persistently positive, high-titer ANA, anti-single-stranded DNA antibody, hypergammaglobulinemia, an elevated ESR greater than 50 mm/h, and a positive lupus band test (Callen 1982). A study in 1997 showed that in SCLE and/or DLE, patients with evidence of nephropathy, arthralgias, or ANA titer of 1:320 were at significantly higher risk of having systemic disease (Tebbe et al. 1997). This study did not find ESR and anti-ds-DNA antibodies to be useful in distinguishing patients with or without systemic disease. Another recent study suggests that elevated soluble interleukin 2 receptor levels might correlate with patients with SLE and discoid lupus lesions (Blum et al. 1993).

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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