Race and

Differences concerning the clinical presentation of CLE in various ethnic groups are not a frequent finding. However, a peculiar variant of CLE is annular erythema frequently associated with Sjogren's syndrome in Japan. It is regarded as the counterpart of SCLE in whites, except for the paucity of LE-specific histopathologic findings and HLA-DR3 tissue type (Miyagawa 1994, Watanabe et al. 1997). Japanese annular erythema of Sjogren's syndrome sera and American SCLE sera share several types of anti-52-kDa and anti-60-kDa Ro/SSA autoantibodies (McCauliffe et al. 1996).

In CLE, it seems likely that sex differences exist concerning the course and prognosis of the disease. In one study, 28 males and 111 females with SLE were examined. Widespread DLE and papular and nodular mucinosis occur significantly more commonly in men than in women with SLE and serum sex hormone levels within the reference range in male patients with LE (Kanda et al. 1996). However, other groups reported that men with SLE showed hyperestrogenemia and hypotestosteronemia and suggested that estrogens may facilitate the development of SLE and that testosterone may have protective properties (Miller et al. 1983, Sequeira et al. 1993). In a series of 261 patients with SLE, only 12% were male. Follow-up of these patients for a mean of 64 months showed that discoid skin lesions and deeply localized subcutaneous LE skin lesions occur more frequently in men than in women (Font et al. 1992). However, in another series of patients with SLE including 61 males and 86 females, no significant difference in CLE manifestations was found between the two groups (Kaufman et al. 1989, Koh et al. 1994).

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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