Raynauds Phenomenon

Raynaud's phenomenon is characterized by an initial vasopastic component producing blanching of digits (toes, fingers, or both). This initial blanching is followed by cyanosis discoloration and followed by reperfusion erythema with rewarming. Pain is commonly present.

Most patients who develop Raynaud's phenomenon do not have an associated connective tissue disease. It has been estimated that only 2%-10% of patients with Raynaud's phenomenon evaluated by rheumatologists have SLE. Raynaud's phenomenon, however, may predate the development of SLE by years (Diment et al. 1979, Kallenberg et al 1980). Patients with SLE possessing U1RNP antibodies seem to have an increased frequency of Raynaud's phenomenon. Our group, while in Buffalo, NY, detected that the frequency of Raynaud's phenomenon was twice the frequency of non-U1RNP antibody-positive patients with SLE (Maddison et al. 1978). We further have determined that the frequency of Raynaud's phenomenon in the anti-Ro/SSA antibody-positive patient population with SLE in Baltimore was 46% (23 of 50 patients) (Simmons-O'Brien et al. 1995). These studies also indicated that the frequency and severity of Raynaud's phenomenon is obviously environmentally dependent. For example, in Baltimore, a 44% frequency of Raynaud's phenomenon was detected in an SLE patient population (Hochberg et al. 1985). Dubois and Tuffanelli (Dubois and Tuffanelli 1964) reported an 18% frequency of Raynaud's phenomenon in patients with SLE seen in southern California.

Raynaud's phenomenon is due to severe vasospasm involving the digital arteries. In general, the severity of Raynaud's phenomenon does not correlate with SLE activity. One study claims that there is less renal disease and fewer deaths in patients with SLE and Raynaud's phenomenon than in unaffected patients (Diment et al. 1979).

In recent years, the calcium channel blocker nifedipine has been found to be effective in treating patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (10-30 mg/d or 30mg/d in a sustained-release form of the drug preparation). Other vasodilators, such as nicar-dipine and nitroglycerin paste, have also been shown to be efficacious.

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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