The genetic architecture of LE is far from understood. The most significant immuno-genetic associations to date have been found in the presence of anti-Ro/SSA and/or anti-La/SSB in CLE and SLE, where HLA, TNF, complement, IL-10, TCR, and GST genes may be involved. However, other LE-specific associations, outside the context of anti-Ro/SSA,have been less well characterized to date. For CLE, where the phenotype can be accurately characterized, there are still numerous candidate gene loci in the wings.

Acknowledgements. This article is adapted (with written permission from Blackwell Science) from a review article of the same title (Millard and McGregor 2001d).

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