Congenital Anomalies of the Uterus

Congenital malformations of the uterus, also termed Mullerian duct anomalies (MDA), are a relatively uncommon, but often treatable, cause of infertility. The incidence of congenital MDA among women of reproductive age is estimated to be up to 0.5%. However, since normal pregnancies can occur in women with MDA and the anomalies are discovered in most cases in patients presenting with infertility, the reported prevalence of MDA in the general population is probably underestimated. Uterine malformations can be associated with subfertility, pregnancy wastage, and menstrual disorders. Congenital malformations of other organ systems may be present - most frequently renal malformations like renal agenesis or ectopia - whereas bony malformations, such as fusion of the vertebral column, are less commonly seen. Whereas transvaginal ultrasound and hysterosalpingography are the primary imaging modalities, MRI is currently used as a problem-solving modality in inconclusive cases, e.g., in the differentiation between septate and bicornuate uterus, and is widely accepted as the leading imaging modality for further surgical planning. MRI provides high resolution images of the entire uterine anatomy (internal and external contour) and allows diagnosis of secondary findings like renal malformation. If possible, patients undergoing MRI for suspected MDA should be scheduled in the second half of the menstrual cycle, since the thickness of the endometrial stripe increases during the follicular and

Uterus Unicornu
Fig. 4. A 28-year-old woman with a history of infertiliy. a Hys-terosalpingography. b Axial T2-weighted MR image. An unicornu-ate uterus with a rudimentary left horn without endometrial cavity (arrow) is seen


x 1 rom primarily the uterine defects, because of the wide variability and overlap of associated cervical and vaginal anomalies, whereas the cervico-vaginal defects are added separately in the form of a subset.

100 Pregnancy Tips

100 Pregnancy Tips

Prior to planning pregnancy, you should learn more about the things involved in getting pregnant. It involves carrying a baby inside you for nine months, caring for a child for a number of years, and many more. Consider these things, so that you can properly assess if you are ready for pregnancy. Get all these very important tips about pregnancy that you need to know.

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