Glmck Adpkd

MCD Bilateral obstructive anomalies

MDKD, Multicystic dysplastic kidney; ADPKD, Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney; ARPKD, Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney; GLMCK, Glomerulocyst kidney; MCP, Medullary cystic dysplasia

It is also important to look for associated anomalies corresponding to syndromes with renal cystic involvement [18].

There Are Intra-abdominal Calcifications

Intra-abdominal calcifications and echogenic masses are relatively common findings during fetal US. They may arise from any fetal part (e.g., liver, gallbladder, kidneys, spleen, adrenals).

Detection of such anomalies should prompt a detailed survey for additional findings, and a maternal history. In most cases, conservative management is sufficient. However, for some, a transfer to a tertiary care centre will be necessary.

In case of peritoneal calcifications, an important associated finding would be dilated intestinal loops, which would orient the diagnosis towards meconium peritonitis.

Another important finding would be an underlying fetal mass with calcifications (see below) [19-21].

There Is an Abdominal Mass (Second and Third Trimester)

In case of an abdominal mass, the role of imaging is to determine its anatomical origin, its content and the anatomic relation with the regional structures. The most common cystic tumor is an ovarian cyst.

The most common solid-type tumor is renal or adrenal in origin.

Cystic tumors

Solid-type tumors ovarian cyst mesenteric cyst lymphangioma cystic teratoma cystic neuroblastoma ■ urethral cyst duplication cyst

- mesoblastic nephroma

- neuroblastoma

- teratoma

- hemangioma

- intra-abdominal sequestration

Obstructive dysplasia

Simple renal cyst

Unilateral ADPKD

Follow-up is by US for neonatal management and eventual surgery [22].

In conclusion, a step-by-step analysis helps to define the anomalies affecting the fetal abdomen. For selected indications, US first and MR imaging thereafter, can be used to evaluate the malformation.

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