The non-functioning endocrine tumor is the third most common NET and represents 15-25% of all these tumors. It arises from alpha or beta cells. The neoplasm is hor-monally quiescent (probably with very minimal secretion) and often presents as a mass with or without jaundice or gastric outlet obstruction. The tumor is usually located in the pancreatic head and can measure up to 20 cm in diameter. There may be solid and necrotic components and coarse calcifications are present in up to 25%. The mass is hypervascular, with a late capillary stain. The tumor does not encase vessels but in 80-100% of cases shows malignant transformation with liver metastases and adenopathy. The five-year survival is 44%. The key features of non-functioning NETs are large size, hyper-vascularity and absence of vascular encasement. Results with CT and MRI are similar.
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