References

1. Kissane JM (1997) Congenital malformations. In: Hepinstall RH (ed) Pathology of the kidney. Little, Brown and Company, Boston, pp 69-119

2. Tada S, Yamagishi J, Kobayashi H et al (1983) The incidence of simple renal cyst by computed tomography. Clin Radiol 34:437-439

3. Smith SJ, Bosniak MA, Megibow AJ et al (1989) Renal cell carcinoma: earlier discovery and increased detection. Radiology 170:699-703

4. Jinzaki M, McTavish JD, Zou KH, Silverman SG (2004) Small (< 3 cm) renal masses improved detection and characterization with multidetector CT (MDCT). Radiology 183:223-228

5. Bosniak MA (1991) The small (less than or equal to 3.0 cm) renal parenchymal tumor detection diagnosis and controversies. Radiology 179:307-317

6. Silverman SG, Gan YU, Mortele KJ et al (2006) Renal masses in the adult patient: the role of percutaneous biopsy. Radiology (in press)

7. Frank I, Blute ML, Cheville JC et al (2003) Solid renal tumors: an analysis of pathological features related to tumor size. J Urol 170:2217-2220

8. Bosniak MA, Megibow AJ, Hulnick DH et al (1998) CT diagnosis of renal angiomyolipoma: the importance of detecting small amounts of fat. AJR Am J Roentgenol 151:497-501

9. Strotzer M, Lehner KB, Becker K (1993) Detection of fat in a renal cell carcinoma mimicking angiomyolipoma. Radiology 188:427-428

10. Helenon O, Chretien Y, Paraf F et al (1993) Renal cell carcinoma containing fat: demonstration with CT. Radiology 188:429-430

11. Castoldi MC, Dellafiore L, Renne G et al (1995) CT demonstration of liquid intratumoral fat layering in a necrotic renal cell carcinoma. Abdom Imaging 20:483-485

Table 1. Cystic renal masses: ignore, excise or follow

Finding

Ignore

Excise

Follow

Table 1. Cystic renal masses: ignore, excise or follow

Finding

Ignore

Excise

Follow

Calcification

Small amount Smooth

Wall or septum Milk of calcium

Associated enhancement

Thick Nodular

No enhancement

Hyperdense

Sharp margin Homogeneous No enhancement < 3cm

25% extrarenal

Irregular margin Heterogeneous Enhancement Solid on US

Totally intrarenal

Septations

Thin Smooth No nodularity Small number

Thick Irregular Nodular Large number

'Greater than hairline'

Multiloculated

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