1. Landis SH, Murray T, Bolden S, Wingo PA (1998) Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 48:6-29

2. Imperial Cancer Research Fund (1995) Cancer statistics (online: http:www.icnet uk/research/factsheet/canstats.html)

3. American Cancer Society (1998) Cancer facts and figures. cff98/graphicaldata.html

4. Catalona WJ (1995) Surgical management of prostate cancer: contemporary results with anatomic radical prostatectomy. Cancer 75:1903-1908

5. Donovan JL, Frankel SJ, Faulkner A et al (1999) Dilemmas in treating early prostate cancer: the evidence and a questionaire survey of consultant urologists in the United Kingdom. BMJ 318:299-300

6. Jewett HJ (1956) Significance of the palpable prostatic nodule. JAMA 160:838-939

7. Smith DS, Catalona WJ (1995) Interexaminer variability of digital rectal examination in detecting prostate cancer. Urology 45:70-74

8. Voges GE, McNeal JE, Redwine E et al (1992) Morphologic analysis of surgical margins with positive findings in prostatectomy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Cancer 69:520-526

9. Epstein JI, Pizov G, Walsh PC (1993) Correlation of pathologic findings with progression after radical retropubic prostatectomy. Cancer 71:3582-3593

10. Partin AW, Yoo J, Ballentine Carter JY et al (1993) The use of prostate specific antigen, clinical stage and gleason score to predict pathological stage in men with localized prostate cancer. J Urol 150:110-115

11. Kleer E, Oesterling JE (1993) PSA and staging of localized prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am 20:695-704

12. Jager GJ, Barentsz JO (1998) Prostate cancer. In: Husband J (ed) Oncology imaging. Isis Medical Media, Oxford, pp 239-257

13. Langlotz CP (1996) Benefits and costs of MR imaging of prostate cancer. MR Clin Nort Am 4:533-545

14. Schiebler ML, Schnall MD, Pollack HM et al (1993) Current role of MR imaging in the staging of adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Radiology 189:339-352

15. Chernoff DM, Hricak H, Higgins CB, Hricak H (1997) The Male pelvis: prostate and seminal vesicles. In: Hricak H (ed)

Magnetic resonance imaging of the body, 3rd edn. LippincottRaven Press, New York, pp 875-900

16. Ramchandani P, Schnall MD, LiVolsi VA et al (1993) Senile amyloidosis of the seminal vesicles mimicking metastatic spread of prostatic carcinoma on MR images. AJR Am J Roentgenol 161:99-100

17. Jager G, Ruijter E, de la Rosette J, van de Kaa CA (1997) Amyloidosis of the seminal vesicles simulating tumor invasion of prostatic carcinoma on endorectal MR images. Eur J Radiol 7:552-554

18. Langlotz CP, Schnall MD, Pollack H (1995) Staging of pro-static cancer: accuracy of MR imaging. Radiology 194:645646

19. Jager GJ, Thornbury J, Barentsz JO et al (1998) MR staging in prostate cancer (pc): influence on patient outcome and effective analysis. Abstract, RSNA 181

20. Rifkin MD, Zerhouni EA, Gatsonis CA et al (1990) Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonogra-phy in staging early prostate cancer. Results of a multi-institutional cooperative trial. N Engl J Med 323:621-626

21. Rarvik J, Halvorsen OJ, Albrektsen G et al (1999) MR imaging with an endorectal coil for staging of clinically localised prostate cancer prior to radical prostatectomy. Eur Radiol 9:29-34

22. Schnall MD, Imai Y, Tomaszewski JE et al (1991) Prostate cancer: local staging with endorectal surface coil MR imaging. Radiology 178:797-802

23. Hricak H, White S, Vigneron DB et al (1994) Carcinoma of the prostate gland: MR imaging with pelvic phased-array coils versus integrated endorectal-pelvic phased-array coils. Radiology 193:703-709

24. Bartolozzi C, Menchi I, Lencioni R et al (1996) Local staging of prostate carcinoma with endorectal coil MR imaging: correlation with whole mount radical prostatectomy specimens. Eur Radiol 6:339-345

25. Langlotz CP, Schnall MD, Malkowicz SB, Schwartz JS (1996) Cost-effectiveness of endorectal magnetic resonance imaging for the staging of prostate cancer. Acad Radiol 3:24-27

26. Chelsky MJ, Schnall MD, Seidmon EJ, Pollack HM (1993) Use of endorectal surface coil magnetic resonance imaging for local staging of prostate cancer. J Urol 150:391-395

27. Outwater E, Petersen RO, Siegelman ES et al (1994) Prostate carcinoma: assessment of diagnostic criteria for capsular penetration on endorectal coil MR images. Radiology 193:333-339

28. White S, Hricak H, Forstner R et al (1995) Prostate cancer: effect of postbiopsy hemorrhage on interpretation of MR images. Radiology 195:385-390

29. Kedar RP, Kier R, Viner N (1999) Proceedings of the International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (poster ISMRM, Philadelphia) nr. 1106

30. Scheidler J, Hricak H, Yu KK et al (1997) Radiological Evaluation of lymph node metastases in patients with cervical cancer. JAMA 278:1096-1101

31. Jager GJ, Barentsz JO, Oosterhof G, Ruijs JHJ (1996) 3D dimensional MR imaging in nodal staging of bladder and prostate cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1503-1507

32. Barentsz JO (1997) MR-intervention in the pelvis: an overview and first experiences in MR-guided biopsy in nodal metastases in urinary bladder cancer. Abdominal Radiology 22:524-530

33. Vinnicombe SJ, Norman AR, Nicolson V, Husband JE (1995) Normal pelvic lymph nodes: evaluation by CT scanning after bipedal lymphangiography. Radiology 194:349-355

34. Oyen RH, Van Poppel HP, Ameye FE et al (1994) Lymph node staging of localized prostatic carcinoma with CT and CT-guid-ed fine-needle aspiration biopsy: prospective study of 285 patients. Radiology 190:315-322

35. Wolf JS, Cher M, Dall'era M et al (1995) The use and accuracy of cross-sectional imaging and fine needle aspiration cytol ogy for detection of pelvic lymph node metastases before radical prostatectomy. J Urol 153:993-999

36. Haukaas S, Rarvik J, Halvorsen OJ, Foellings M (1997) When is bone scintigraphy necessary in the assessment of newly diagnosed, untreated prostate cancer. Br J Urol 79:770-776

37. Algra PR, Bloem JL, Tissing H et al (1991) Detection of vertebral metastases: comparison between MR imaging and bone scintigraphy. Radiographics 11:219-323

38. Delorme S, Knopp MV (1998) Non-invasive vascular imaging: assessing tumour vascularity Eur J Radiol 4:517-527

39. Jager G, Ruijter E, Kaa van de C et al (1997) Dynamic turboflash subtraction technique for contrast-enhanced MR images of the prostate: correlation with histopathology. Radiology 203:645-652

40. Futterer JJ, Engelbrecht MR, Huisman HJ et al (2005) Staging prostate cancer with dynamic contrast-enhanced endorectal MR imaging prior to radical prostatectomy: experienced versus less experienced readers. Radiology 237:541-547

41. Padhani AR, MacVicar AD, Gapinski CJ et al (2001) Effects of androgen deprivation on prostatic morphology and vascular permeability evaluated with MR imaging. Radiology 218:365-374

42. Engelbrecht MR, Huisman HJ, Laheij RJ et al (2003), Discrimination of prostate cancer from normal peripheral zone and central gland tissue by using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology 229:248-254

43. Kurhanewicz J, Males R, Sokolov D (1998) Combined en-dorectal/phased-array MR imaging and 3-D H-MR Spectroscopic imaging for improved diagnosis of extracapsu-lar extension in prostate cancer. Proceedings of the International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (abstract ISMRM, Philadelphia)

44. Heerschap A, Jager GJ, van der Graaf M et al (1997) In vivo proton MR spectroscopy reveals altered metabolite content in malignant prostate tissue. Anticancer Res 17:1455-1460

45. Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Hricak H et al (1998) Three-dimensional H-1 MR spectroscopic imaging of the in situ human prostate with high (0.24-0.77-cm3) spatial resolution. Radiology 198:795-805

46. Vigneron DB, Males R, Noworolski S (1998) 3D MRSI of prostate cancer: correlations with histologic grade. Proceedings of the International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (abstract ISMRM, Philadelphia)

47. Males R, Vigneron DB, Nelson AD (1998) Addition of MR spectroscopic imaging to MRI significantly improves detection and localization of prostate cancer. Proceedings of the International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (abstract ISMRM, Philadelphia)

48. Weissleder R, Elizondo G, Wittenberg J et al (1990) Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide: an intravenous contrast agent for assessing lymphnodes with MR imaging. Radiology 175:494-498

49. Harisinghani MG, Barentsz J, Hahn PF et al (2003) Noninvasive detection of clinically occult lymph-node metastases in prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 348:2491-2499

50. Futterer JJ, Scheenen TW, Huisman HJ et al (2004) Initial experience of 3 tesla endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging and 1H-spectroscopic imaging of the prostate. Invest Radiol 39:671-680

51. Fütterer J, Heijmink S, Scheenen T et al (2006) Local staging of prostate cancer using 3T endorectal coil MR imaging -Early Experience. Radiology 238:184-191

52. Presti JC, Hricak H, Narayan P et al (1996) Local staging of prostatic carcinoma: comparison of transrectal sonography and endorectal MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol 166:103108

53. Yu KK, Hricak H, Alagappan R et al (1997) Detection of ex-tracapsular extension of prostate carcinoma with endorectal and phased-array coil MR imaging: multivariate feature analysis. Radiology 202:697-702

54. Jager GJ, Severens JL, Thornbury JR et al (2000) Prostate cancer staging: should MR imaging be used? A decision analytic approach. Radiology 215:445-451

55. Barentsz JO, Debruyne FMJ, Ruijs SHJ (eds) (1990) Magnetic resonance imaging of carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordracht, London, Boston

56. Barentsz JO, Jager GJ, van Vierzen PB et al (1996) Staging urinary bladder cancer after transurethral biopsy: value of fast dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology 201:185-193

57. Barentsz JO, Jager GJ, Mugler JP et al (1995) Staging urinary bladder cancer, value of T1weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared-rapid gradient-echo two-dimensional spinecho sequences. AJR Am J Roentgenal 164:109-115

58. Jager GJ, Barentsz JO, Oosterhof GO et al (1996) Pelvic adenopathy in prostatic and urinary bladder carcinoma: MR imaging with a three-dimensional TI-weighted magnetization-prepared-rapid gradient-echo sequence. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 167:1503-1507

59. Barentsz JO, Berger-Hartog O, Witjes JA et al (1998) Evaluation of chemotherapy in advanced urinary bladder cancer with fast dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology 207:791-7

60. Maeda H, Kinukawa T, Hottori R et al (1995) Detection of muscle layer invasion with submillmeter pixel MRI: Staging of bladder carcinoma. Magn Reson Imaging 13:9-19

61. Hricak H, White S (1997) Radiological evaluation of the urinary bladder and prostate. In: Grainger RG, Allison D (eds) Grainger and Allison's diagnostic radiology: a textbook of medical imaging, Vol. 2, 3rd edn. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 1427-1438

62. Sherwood T (1980) Bladder and urethra. In: Sherwood T, Davidson AJ, Talner LB (eds) Uro-Radiology, 1st edn, Part 4, Division 3. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp 255-312

63. Hatch TR, Barry JM (1986) The value of excretory urography in staging bladder cancer. J Urol 135:49-54

64. Richards D, Jones S (1998) The bladder and prostate. In: Sutton D (ed) Textbook of radiology and imaging. 6th British Library cataloguing in publication data. Longman Asia, Hong Kong , pp 1167-1187

65. Dershow PD, Scher HI (1987) Sonography in the evaluation of carcinoma of the bladder urology 29:454-457

66. Barentsz JO, Jager GJ, Witjes JA, Ruijs JHJ (1996) Primary staging of urinary bladder carcinoma: the role of MR imaging and a comparison with CT. Eur Radiol 6:134-139

67. Barentsz JO, Witjes JA, Ruijs JH (1997) What is new in bladder cancer imaging. Urol Clin North Am 24:583-602

68. Takeda K, Kawaguchi T, Shiraishi T et al (1998) Normal bladder wall morphology in Gd-DTPA-enhanced clinical MR imaging using an endo-rectal surface coil and histological assessment of submucosal linear enhancement using, Gd- DTPA auto-radiography in an animal model. Eur J Radiol 26:290-296

69. Barentsz JO (1998) Magnetic resonance imaging of urinary bladder carcinoma. In: Jafri SH, Diokno AC, Amendola MA (eds) Lower genitourinary radiology, imaging and intervention. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 138-158

70. Barentsz JO, Ruijs JHJ, Strijk SP (1993) The role of MR imaging in carcinoma of the urinary bladder. AJR Am J Roentgenol 160:937-947

71. Siegelman ES, Schnall MD (1996) Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the bladder and prostate. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 4:153-169

72. Narumi Y, Kadota T, Inoue E et al (1993) Bladder tumors: staging with gadolinium-enhanced oblique MR imaging. Radiology 187:145-50

73. Eustace S, Tello R, De Carvalho V et al (1997) A comparison of whole body turbo short tau inversion recovery MR imaging and planar technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate scintig-raphy in the evaluation of patients with suspected skeletal metastases. AJR Am J Roentgenol 169:1655-1661

74. Padhani AR, Husband JE (2001) Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI studies in oncology with an emphasis on quantification, validation human studies. Clin Radiol 56:607-620

75. Lin W, Hoacke EM, Smith AS et al (1992) Gadolinium enhanced high resolution MRA with adaptive vessel tracking: preliminary results in the intracranial circulation. Magn Reson Imaging 2:227-284

76. Vens S, Hosten N, Ilg J et al (1996) Pre-operative staging of bladder carcinomas with Gd-DTPA-supported dynamic magnetic resonance tomography. Comparison with plain and Gd-DTTA-supported spin-echo sequences. Rofo 164:218-225

77. Hamm P, Laniado M, Saini S (1990) Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis. Magn Reson 6:108-135

78. El-Diasty T, EI-Sobky E, Abou EI-Ghar M et al (2002) Triphasic helical CT of urinary bladder carcinomas correlation with tumour angiogenesis and pathologic types. Eur Radol 12:D1-D25 (abs)

79. Nicolas V, Spielmann R, Mass R et al (1991) The diagnostic value of MRI tomography following gadolinium-DTPA compared to computed-tomography in bladder tumors [German]. Rofo 154:357-363

80. Braun RD, Lanzen JL, Dewhirst NW (1999) Fourier analysis of fluctuations of oxygen tension and blood flow in R3230Ac tumors and muscle of rats. Am J Physiol 277:551-568

81. Dovark HF, Nagy JA, Feng D et al (1999) Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor and the significance of micro-vascular hyper-permeability in angiogenesis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 237:97-132

82. Dewhirst M (1993) Angiogenesis and blood flow in solid tumors. In: Teicher B (ed) Drug resistance in oncology. New York, NY, USA, pp 3-24

83. Neeman M, Provenzale JP, Dewhirst MW (2001) MRI application in evaluation of tumor angiogenesis. Semin Radiol Oncol 11:70-82

84. Saito W, Amanuma M, Tanaka J et al (2000) Histopathological analysis of bladder cancer stalk observed on MRI. Magn Reson Imaging 18:411 (abs)

85. Husband JE (1992) Review of staging bladder cancer. Clin Radiol 46:153-159

86. Wolf JS, Cher M, Dall'era M et al (1995) The use and accuracy of cross-sectional imaging and fine needle aspiration cytology for detection of pelvic lymph node metastases before radical prostatectomy. J Urol 153:993-999

87. Vassallo P, Matei C, Heston WDW et al (1994) AMI-227-en-hanced MR Lymphography: usefulness for differentiating reactive from tumor bearing lymph nodes. Radiology 193:501-506

88. Weissleder R, Elizondo G, Wittenberg J et al (1990) Ultrasmall paramagnetic iron oxide: an intravenous contrast agent for assessing lymph nodes with MR imaging. Radiology 175:494-498

89. Gerlowski LE, Jain RK (1986) Microvascular permeability of normal and neoplastic tissues. Microvasc Res 31:288-305

90. Bellin MF, Roy C, Kinkel K et al (1998) Lymph node metastases: safety and effectiveness of MRI with ultrasmall super-paramanetic iron oxide particles - initial clinical experience. Radiology 207:799-808

91. Harisinghani MG, Saini S, Slater GJ et al (1997) MR imaging of pelvic lymph nodes in primary pelvic carcinoma with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (Combidex): preliminary observations. J Magn Reson Imaging 7:161-163

92. Harisinghani MG, Barentsz J, Hahn PF et al (2003) Noninvasive detection of clinically occult lymph-node metastases in prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 348:2491-2499

93. Deserno WM, Harisinghani MG, Taupitz M et al (2004) Urinary bladder cancer: preoperative nodal staging with feru-moxtran-10- enhanced MR imaging. Radiology 233:449-456

94. Woodward PJ, Sohaey R, O'Donoghue MJ, Green DE (2002) Tumors and tumorlike lesions of the testis: radiologic-patho-logic correlation. Radiographics 22:189-216

95. Maizlin ZV, Belenky A, Kunichezky M et al (2004) Leydig cell tumors of the testis: gray scale and color Doppler sonographic appearance. J Ultrasound Med 23:959-964

96. Mazzu D, Jeffrey RB, Ralls PW (1995) Lymphoma and leukemia involving the testicles: findings on gray-scale and color Doppler sonography. AJR Am J Roentgen 164:645-647

97. Tartar VM, Trambert MA, Balsara ZN, Mattrey RF (1993) Tubular ectasia of the testicle: sonographic and MR imaging appearance. AJR Am J Roentgenol 160:539-542

98. Cho J-H, Chang J-C, Park B-H et al (2002) Sonographic and MR imaging findings of testicular epidermoid cysts. AMJ Am J Roentgenol 178:743-748

99. Maizlin ZV, Belenky A, Baniel J et al (2005) Epidermoid cyst and teratoma of the testis: sonographic and histologic similarities. J Ultrasound Med 24:1403-1409

100. Nagamine WH, Mehta SV Vade A (2005) Testicular adrenal rest tumors in a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 24:1717-1720

101. Peterson AC, Bauman JM, Light DE et al (2001) The preva lence of testicular microlithiasis in an asymptomatic population of men 18 to 35 years old. J Urol 166:2061-2064

102. Bach AM, Hann LE, Shi W et al (2003) Is there an increased incidence of contralateral testicular cancer in patients with in-tratesticular microlithiasis? AJR Am J Roentgen 180:497-500

103. Cast JEI, Nelson WM, Early AS et al (2000) Testicular microlithiasis: prevalence and tumor risk in a population referred for scrotal sonography. AJR Am J Roentgen 175:1703-1706

104. Dogra VS, Rubens DJ, Gottlieb RH, Bhatt S (2004) Torsion and beyond: new twists in spectral Doppler evaluation of the scrotum. J Ultrasound Med 23:1077-1085

105. Middleton WD, Middleton MA, Dierks M et al (1997) Sonographic prediction of viability in testicular torsion: preliminary observations. J Ultrasound Med 16:23-27

106. Fernández-Pérez GC, Tardáguila FM, Velasco M et al (2005) Radiologic findings of segmental testicular infarction. AJR Am J Roentgenol 184:1587-1593

107. Woodward PJ, Schwab CM, Sesterhenn IA (2003) Extratesticular scrotal masses: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 23:215-240

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment