Maternal Weight Gain Ebook

Pregnancy Diet Plan

Pregnancy Diet Plan

The first trimester is very important for the mother and the baby. For most women it is common to find out about their pregnancy after they have missed their menstrual cycle. Since, not all women note their menstrual cycle and dates of intercourse, it may cause slight confusion about the exact date of conception. That is why most women find out that they are pregnant only after one month of pregnancy.

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Pregnancy Without Pounds

This proven program will get you through your pregnancy in better shape than most other women in as little as 27 minutes a day and with minimal effort. It contains all the information that I believe will Help you to look and feel like I did barefoot and beautiful! Inside you will learn Exactly how to avoid unwanted pounds, overcome your food cravings, care for your skin, dress to kill and look like one Hot Mama. Ive also put together Fifty simple, yet extremely effective pregnancy-friendly exercises and stretches to keep you and your body looking and feeling Great (includes 3 different fitness programs depending on Your fitness level)!

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Embryonic Emergence Of The Thymus

Although less is known about the role of cytokines in fetal T cell development than about B lymphopoiesis, immature proliferating thymocytes form colonies in vitro when exposed to the proliferative cytokines IL-7 and ckit-ligand (CFU-IL-7) (Namen et al. 1998 Lee et al. 1989 Moore et al. 1996) and it is likely that both of these cytokines play a key role during in utero T cell development. Developing thymic lymphocytes initiate expression of the T-cell receptor (TcR) within the thymic cortex and then undergo sequential interactions with epithelial and mesodermal-derived stromal cells which result in selection to delete nonreactive and autoreactive cells (Cosgrove et al. 1992). Soon after birth in rodents, T lymphocytes with characteristic expression of the full complement of TcR-associated molecules are found in peripheral lymphoid organs, including the spleen (Rodewald and Fehling 1998).

Embryonic Emergence Of Secondary Lymphoid Tissues

Lymph nodes are formed in the embryo by endothelial budding of the venous circulatory system, initiating on gestational day 10.5 in mice (Wigle et al. 2002). These primitive lymph sacs form the lymphatic vasculature by endothelial sprouting, a process that initiates on day 11 and is completed in mice by day 15.5 of gestation (Wigle and Oliver 1999 Mebius 2003). These lymph sacs are populated by IL-7-responsive cells (presumably lymphocytes) by day 13 (Yoshida et al. 2002). The fact that IL-7 receptor-deficient mice fail to form lymph nodes suggests that the interaction of immature hematopoietic cells with the lymph sac is necessary for maturation of the lymph node anatomical structure (Cao et al. 1995 von Freeden-Jeffry et al. 1995). Peyer's patches are formed from clusters of cells on the proximal end of the intestine in mice on gestational day 15.5. Nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissues are formed after birth in mice in a similar manner (Adachi et al. 1997).

Congenital Heart Disease Introduction

Acyanotic defects include coarctation of aorta, patent ductus arteriosus, and ventricular septal defect. Coarctation of the aorta is the narrowing of the aorta proximal to the ductus arteriosus (preductal), distal to the ductus arteriosus (postductal), or level with the ductus arteriosus (auxtaductal). The position of the narrowing during fetal development determines circulation to the lower body and development of collateral circulation. Patent ductus arteriosus is the failure of the structure needed for fetal circulation to close after birth. Ventricular septal defect is the incomplete development of the septum that separates the right and left ventricles, and it often accompanies other defects.

Interuterine Environment

A third level of protection of the fetal immune system from negative maternal influences involves regulation of sex steroid receptors on fetal cells. Lymphocyte precursors, particularly those of B lymphocytes, decline in the mother during pregnancy when sex steroids and glucocorticoid levels are elevated (Medina et al. 1993 Medina and Kincade 1994). Protection of fetal lymphoid precursors from glucocorticoids comes from placental enzymes, but estrogen in the fetal environment is not similarly neutralized (Kincade et al. 2002). Instead, recent studies indicate that receptors for estrogen and androgen on fetal cells do not appear until after birth (Igarashi et al. 2001 Kincade et al. 2002).

Tissue expression and ontogenic development

Hepatic FMO1 is restricted to the fetus, peaking in the early embryo, and decreasing steadily within 3 days postpartum (Table 4).49 Conversely, hepatic FMO3 protein is not detectable in the fetal state, and its onset of expression after birth can be slow. As noted above, FMO3 is necessary for the conversion of trimethylamine to its nonodoriferous N-oxide metabolite, so delayed onset of expression of this enzyme may contribute to cases of transient childhood trimethylaminuria.50 The temporal switch for these FMO isoforms contrasts with that observed for CYP3A7 and CYP3A4 5, in which the suppression of CYP3A7 expression is accompanied by a simultaneous increase in CYP3A4 5, and the net hepatic CYP3A content remains constant.51 The relatively high expression levels of FMO1 during prenatal development and the embryonic periods, in particular, might argue for a role for FMO1 in the metabolism of endogenous substrates that are important for development, but this remains to be determined.

Ontogenic development

The developmental regulation of UGT enzymes was also demonstrated with acetaminophen, which is glucuronidated mainly by UGT1A6 and to some extent by UGT1A9.110 Acetaminophen glucuronide formation is undetectable in the fetus low levels are seen after birth and only reach adult levels of glucuronidation after 10 years of age.111 This lack of UGT activity is compensated, however, by the high activity of sulfotransferases in infants and young

Tissue distribution and ontogenic development

Tissue-specific ontogenic expression of GST has been demonstrated for hepatic GSTA1 and GSTA2, both of which were detected as early as 10 weeks' gestation age, increasing to adult levels within the first 2 years of life.25 GSTM(1-5) was also detected in fetal liver samples, albeit at lower levels, and increased to adult levels following birth. In contrast, GSTP1 expression has been detected in fetal liver samples (10-22 weeks' gestation age), but declined in the second and third trimester and was virtually undetectable in adult samples. In the fetal lung, GSTP1 is the major GST isozyme, detectable in lung tissue at less than 20 weeks' gestation, and decreased continuously in the developing fetus and infant after birth. In fetal kidney at less than 20 weeks' gestation, both GSTA1 and GSTA2 were detected and increased to adult levels within the first 2 years of life. GSTM levels, however, decreased between the fetal and postnatal samples, while GSTP1 levels remained constant during...

Extracutaneous Manifestations of Neonatal Lupus Erythematosus

In some children with complete heart block, cardiac muscle is involved as well. This is often evident shortly after birth, when correction of the low heart rate with pacemaker implantation fails to correct heart failure. However, heart failure has developed later during infancy in a few individuals, demonstrating the importance of close monitoring in children with cardiac NLE (Taylor-Albert et al. 1997). Hepatobiliary disease of NLE apparently may assume several phenotypes. In a review of data from a national research registry, approximately 10 (19 219) of the cases in the registry had evidence of hepatobiliary disease (Lee et al. 2002). The three types of presentations noted were as follows (a) liver failure in utero or shortly after birth, often having the phenotype of neonatal iron storage disease (also known as neonatal hemochromatosis ) (b) transient conjugated hyperbilirubinemia occurring in the first few weeks of life and (c) transient aminotransferase elevations, occurring at...

Cerebellar Cortex Histogenesis

In contrast to the somewhat standard pattern of neurogenesis of the Purkinje cells and the stellate and basket cells, the granule cells arise from a completely separate progenitor zone, known as the rhombic lip (Figure 3.24). The granule cell precursors are initially generated near the rim of the fourth ventricle but then migrate away from the ventricular zone, over the top of the developing Purkinje cells to form a secondary zone of neurogenesis, called the external granule layer. The cells in this layer continue to actively proliferate, generating an enormous number of granule cell progeny, thus increasing the thickness of the external granule layer considerably. The external granular layer persists for a considerable time after birth in most mammals and continues to generate new granule neurons. There are still granule neurons migrating from the external granule layer as late as two years after birth in humans (Jacobson, 1978).

Chemical Suppression And Susceptibility

The lack of standardization of both in vivo and in vitro models in current immunotoxicity studies has plagued the scientific community and its ability to measure toxic responses consistently. For example, the in vitro CTL assay to alloantigen is thought to be useful to determine developmental immunotoxicity status between 4-6 days after birth, whereas between 11-20 days of age, adult levels are reached (Holladay and Blaylock 2002). These data are useful when attempting to extrapolate laboratory animal or human clinical data to predict human disease from exposure scenarios, but the timing of exposure relative to immune development must be carefully considered. There are several examples of endpoints where this construct has been used to successfully establish human homology for adults, but not for juveniles (Dietert et al. 2000). Whole animal studies at this time are the most appropriate model to use when determining developmental alterations. In vitro testing allows for the...

Primary Nursing Diagnosis

CL and CP are treated with a combination of surgery, speech therapy, and orthodontic work. Surgical repair of a CL is performed within the first month after birth. The repair improves the child's ability to suck. The optimal time to surgically correct a CP is controversial. Times range from 28 days of life to 18 months. Most surgeons prefer to perform the surgery at an early age, before faulty speech habits develop. The more extensive the surgery required, the later the surgery may occur. Surgical repair of CL (cheiloplasty) is usually uncomplicated with no long-term intervention, other than possible scar revision. Surgical repair of CP (palatoplasty) is more extensive and may require more than one surgery. If the infant has horseshoe defect, surgery may be impossible. A contoured speech bulb attached to the back of a denture appliance to occlude the nasopharynx may help the child speak.

Neuronal Intestinal Dysplasia

Neuronal intestinal dysplasia (NID) is characterized by a reduced motility of the large intestine due to abnormalities of the enteric nerves. The unusually slow passage of waste through the large intestine leads to chronic problems, such as constipation and uncontrollable soiling. Neuronal intestinal dysplasia can be diagnosed soon after birth and may mimic or coincide with Hirschsprung's disease. Therefore, in well-selected patients, anal manometry, specifically through anal reflex evaluation, could be of value in the differentiation of these cases.

Clinical Evaluation Of Infant

Babies whose mothers have the onset of rash in the high-risk period (4 days before to 2 days after delivery) do not need any particular diagnostic workup, but they should be given VZIG as soon as possible after birth. About 50 will nevertheless develop varicella, which is usually mild. A small percentage, however, may develop more severe varicella and require antiviral therapy. Treatment for these infants must be individualized carefully with close follow-up. It is preferable to overtreat in the sense of administering intravenous acyclovir to babies who may not turn out to need it rather than to withhold medication until an infant has developed full-blown disseminated varicella, which may be rapidly fatal. Infants with possible severe varicella should have a complete blood cell count, liver chemistries, and a chest x-ray at the bare minimum. A lumbar puncture is usually not indicated. Skin lesions that appear to be caused by varicella may be cultured for virus, tested for VZV antigens...

Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

Fetuses and infants are at particular risk because intrauterine CMV infection is the most common congenital infection it occurs in 0.5 to 3 of all live births. Infection of the fetus by CMV may not be recognized until birth or several years after birth because pregnant women with CMV infections may not have clinical symptoms. Infants who have been infected with CMV during gestation may have intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly (small head size), or hydrocephaly (increased cerebrospinal fluid in the brain).

The Rhombic Lip And The External Granule Cell Layer Of The Cerebellum

Layers Developing Cerebellum

The external granule cell layer is present in every vertebrate that has been examined. It is a single layer of cells that is about 6-8 cell diameters thick. Importantly, mitotic figures are scattered throughout the external part of the layer indicating that there is no interkinetic nuclear migration. In this regard, the external granule cell layer is similar to the SVZ. The internal part of the external granule cell layer is not a proliferative zone, but instead it consists of cells that are waiting to migrate. The major output of the external granule cell layer is the many cells that comprise the internal granule cell, which are arguably the most numerous neurons in the brain. The life span of the external granule cell is long in comparison with the VZ that produces the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. For example, in the mouse, the Purkinje cells are produced in a three-day period from E10 through E13 but the internal granule cells are produced over a much more extended period from...

Male Involvement with Infants

Male-infant interactions are weakly developed among prosimians, and in these primitive primates, male care more or less ( but not completely) coincides with monogamy (Vogt, 1984). Direct male care occurs in 7 out of 17 genera, including one of the most primitive of all lemurs, the nest-building ruffed lemur (Lemur variegatus), where the male diligently tends the nest while the mother forages (personal communication from Patricia Wright). Among New World monkeys, 12 of 16 genera (Vogt, 1984) or, calculated differently, 50 of all species (Wright, 1984) exhibit direct male care, often with the male as the primary caretaker. That is, shortly after birth, an adult male often with the help of various immatures in the group or other males will take the infant, carry it (or them, in the frequent case of twins) on his back, share food with infants, either adult males or juveniles may catch beetles to feed them, or assist them by cracking the casing of tough fruit.

Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis

Presents at birth or shortly thereafter as erythema, blistering, and or scaling marked hyperkeratosis shortly after birth scales are small, dark, with corrugated appearance scales sometimes shedand, reaccumulate keratotic skin in intertrigi-nous areas which may become macerated and foul smelling blisters occur in crops, rupturing, and leaving red, painful, denuded base bullae tend to disappear before age 20 NPS subtype - lacks severe palmoplantar involvement PS subtype -severe palmoplantar involvement no ectro-pion

Hernia Introduction

A hernia results from a protrusion of abdominal contents through an opening in a weakened musculature. An umbilical hernia is the protrusion of intestine and omentum through the umbilical ring caused by a failure of complete closure after birth. Inguinal hernia is the protrusion of intestine through the inguinal ring caused by a failure of the processus vaginalis to atrophy to close before birth allowing for a hernial sac to form along the inguinal canal. Umbilical hernia usually resolves by 4 years of age those that do not by school age are corrected by surgery. Inguinal hernia becomes apparent in the infant by 2 to 3 months of age when intra-abdominal pressure increases enough to open the sac. It is usually associated with a hydrocele. Both are corrected by surgical repair (herniorrhaphy) to prevent obstruction and eventual incarceration of a loop of bowel.

Parameters For Dietary Reference Intakes

In general, for this report special consideration was not given to possible variations in physiological need during the first month after birth or to the variations in intake of nutrients from human milk that result from differences in milk volume and nutrient concentration during early lactation. Specific. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) to meet the needs of formula-fed infants arc not proposed in this report. The previously published RDAs and RNIs for infants

Timing And Routes Of Transmission

Further evidence of in utero infection is provided by the small number of reported cases of neonatal EV disease with onset in the first few hours after birth. In utero infection has been substantiated in these cases by viral culture of amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood, antigen detection in myocardia hours after birth, culture of neonatal organs a few hours after delivery, and detection of serum-neutralizing immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody on the first day of life (17,46,61-64). Identification of EVs in placentas, often in association with placentitis, villitis, villous necrosis, vasculitis, thrombosis, or other placental pathology, suggests that some fetal infections occur via a transplacental route (10,12,14,65). Shedding of EVs from the stool and cervixes of pregnant women, demonstration of susceptibility of amnion cells to EV infection in vitro, and growth of EVs from amniotic fluid in vivo point to the potential for ascending infection also (11,12,36,61,66-69). Based on the...

Maternal Hiv1 Testing And Counseling

There are four rapid HIV-1 tests approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody test, the Reveal Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test, the Uni-Gold Recombigen HIV-1 Test, and the Murex-SUDS-Single Use Diagnostic System HIV-1 Antibody Test (manufacture of this test was discontinued in 2003). All have good sensitivity and specificity. As with other HIV-1 testing, consent is required for the rapid test, and if positive, a follow-up HIV-1 ELISA and Western blot or IFA test needs to be done to confirm the HIV-1 infection. The advantages of this test are that results are available within 30-60 minutes, and the results can be immediately given to the individual tested. A reactive result from a rapid test is considered to be a preliminary positive test result. Thus, if a pregnant woman does not know her HIV-1 status and is late in gestation, a positive rapid HIV-1 test can be used to institute antiretroviral therapy, or if she is in labor, she...

Traditional Qualitative Views

In the fetus, the rates of hepatic P-oxidation and ketogenesis are low. However, following birth, the capacity of these metabolic pathways increases and results in a significant rise in the concentration of ketone bodies (increasing from 0.2 mM in the rat at birth to 2mM 24h later7). This physiological hyperketonaemia is maintained throughout the suckling period.8 The changes are similar to those in CPT I, where the activity, protein concentration and level of mRNA encoding CPT I are low in the fetus and increase 5fold during the first day of extrauterine life. The enzyme activity and gene expression remain high during the entire suckling period.910 Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of malonyl-CoA (an intermediate compound in the biosynthetic pathway of fatty acids and a potent physiological reversible inhibitor of CPT I11) is decreased in the first 24h following birth. However, these changes are not seen in liver CPT II and the mRNA, immunoreactive protein and activity are not...

Risk Of Fetalneonatal Infection

Maternal Varicella

Since the institution, about 30 years ago, of the recommendation for passive immunization of exposed newborns with VZIG as soon as possible after birth, it is rare for a newborn infant to die of disseminated varicella. Before VZIG became available, one study suggested a 20 fatality rate when the mother had onset of rash less than 4 days and up to 2 days after onset of rash at delivery (13). Infants in whom varicella is fatal often have a disseminated infection with pneumonia, extensive hemorrhagic skin vesicles, hepatitis, and thrombocytopenia. Mothers whose onset of rash is more than 48 hours after delivery may transmit varicella to their babies, but the disease is usually not severe because they transfer antibodies as well (7).

Gestational And Neonatal Expression And Activity Of Mhmgcoa Synthase

We have hypothesized that these processes would be accompanied by the induction activation of the ketogenic enzymes such as mHMG-CoA synthase. During the fetal-neonatal transition in rats ketone body production correlates with changes in hepatic mHMG-CoA synthase.5,18 Protein expression increases from 18d gestation and doubles over the last two days to reach adult levels at term. Ketogenic capacity does not increase, however, due to increasing inhibition of the enzyme (-50 ) by succinylation. Rapid activation (desuccinylation) of the enzyme, due to the birth-stress-induced glucagon surge, occurs shortly after birth (Fig. 1.). Little is known about the control of ketogenesis during human fetal and neonatal development but, as in rat, its onset is also linked to hormonal and metabolic changes accompanying birth. In healthy (AGA) infants, transient self-limiting hypoglycaemia occurs and a counter-regulatory response to low glucose is met by increased...

Infancy And Childhood

In rat the equivalent period would be during suckling and early weaning (between 14 and 20 days after birth). Expression of mHMG-CoA synthase increases over the neonatal period from 1-6 hours and results in a 2-3-fold increase perinatally which, with maintained activation throughout suckling, allows persistent physiological keton- However, during this transition there are significant nutritional and metabolic differences between human and rat. In rat plasma fatty acid substrates for ketogenesis come mainly from hydrolysis of maternal milk triacylglycerols, due to lack of white adipose tissue at birth. In human neonates there is significant accumulated triacylglycerol in the liver, rapidly mobilized for utilization in situ after birth. Significant amounts of fat are stored in the human fetus in white adipose tissue comprising 16-20 body mass, mainly as triacylglycerides containing high proportions of palmic (C16) and oleic (C18 1) acids. Plasma free fatty acids start to rise soon after...

Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection

Anomalous Pulmonary Vein Drainage Xrays

Total repair is carried out soon after establishing the diagnosis and medical stabilization of the patient. The procedure can be emergent shortly after birth when there is obstruction of the common pulmonary venous channel (as with a subdiaphragmatic connection), or in the early days of life when there is obstruction at the atrial septal level (supracardiac or intracardiac connection). When there is no obstruction to pulmonary venous return, surgery is required in the early weeks of life because the large left-to-right shunt causes congestive heart failure or failure to thrive with or without pulmonary artery hypertension.

Relationship Between Dosing Regimens And Immune System Development

The time required for full development of the immune system varies from species to species. For the human, the various elements of the immune system are fully formed early in the second trimester (around 13 to 20 weeks of gestation) (reviewed in Barnett 1995 Holladay and Smialowicz 2000, chap. 1). It is generally accepted that exposure to xenobiotics during the formative stages of immune development, i.e., prior to 20 weeks gestation in humans, could lead to either a more detrimental or permanent result. Although there is firm evidence to support this conclusion in experimental animal studies, it is difficult to obtain definitive data to support this conclusion for humans because of the large number of uncontrollable variables inherent in human studies. All of the reported developmental immunotoxicological studies on chlordane were performed using the mouse model. As the obvious reason for conducting experimental immunotoxicological studies is to determine an approximate risk...

Unintentional Causes of Intracranial Hemorrhage

In rare instances, natural disease can present a picture resembling child abuse. One rare example is rupture of a cerebral aneurysm.35 Another is late-form hemorrhagic disease of the newborn,36 which is caused by vitamin K deficiency. Typically presenting 4-6 weeks after birth, it is manifested by intracranial bleeding (subdural, subarachnoid, intracerebral) as well as bleeding in the skin, gastrointestinal tract and urogenital tract. Rutty et al. described the case of a 9-week-old boy brought to the hospital unconscious,

Competence And Histogenesis

Studies by McConnell and her colleagues have asked whether the progenitors of the cells destined for the deeper layers are somehow intrinsically different from progenitors of the cells destined for the upper layers, using cell transplantation in ferrets. In the ferret, Layer 6 cells are born in utero at embryonic day 29 (E29). Weeks later, cells born at P1 just after birth, are fated for Layers 2 and 3, and must migrate through Layers 6, 5, and 4 which have already formed. To test the idea that cells acquire laminar fate soon after they are born and before they migrate, cells generated in the ventricular zone of E29 ferrets were transplanted into older P1 hosts (Figure 4.19). Although their time of birth would have fated them for a deep layer, the experiments showed that many of the transplanted cells switched their fates and ended up in Layers 2 and

The fourth and sixth branchial arches embryological considerations

The vagus is the nerve of the fourth and sixth branchial arches. Structures derived from these include the pharyngeal and laryngeal cartilages and muscles. The sixth arch artery on the left gives rise to the ductus arteriosus (ligamentum after birth) around which the left sixth arch nerve, the recurrent laryngeal, is caught when the artery descends. The sixth arch artery on the right degenerates, so the right recurrent laryngeal nerve is related to the most caudal persisting branchial arch artery, the fourth, which becomes the right subclavian. The motor function of the vagus in the neck is branchiomotor (special visceral motor) motor function in the thorax and abdomen is parasympathetic (general visceral motor).

Clinical Manifestations In The Fetus And Neonate

Fetal infection with syphilis can be recognized by antenatal ultrasonography. Hydrops fetalis and hepatomegaly are seen in infected fetuses. Bowel dilation also has been described. After birth, the clinical signs of congenital syphilis have been divided arbitrarily into those manifestations that appear in the first 2 years of age, termed early congenital syphilis those that are a result of active infection and inflammation and those that occur beyond 2 years, designated as late congenital syphilis (24-26). The last represent sequelae of the early manifestations or reaction to ongoing inflammation. The clinical findings of early and late congenital syphilis are provided in Table 1. Many infants with congenital syphilis have no clinical signs of infection, and the diagnosis is often impossible to ascertain.

Use Of Therapeutic Immunosuppressants During Pregnancy

For the above reasons, case reports and prospective studies of pregnancy outcome with different drug therapies, and following different transplant procedures, continue to be of considerable interest. The first study estimating maternal and fetal risk from tacrolimus therapy after organ transplantation was published by Jain et al. in 1997. These authors studied 27 pregnancies in 21 female liver recipients who received tacrolimus before and throughout pregnancy. On the day of delivery, mean tacrolimus concentrations were 4.3 ng ml in placenta versus 1.5, 0.7 and 0.5 ng ml in maternal, cord, and child plasma, respectively, and 0.6 ng ml in first breast milk. Two premature infants of 23 and 24 weeks gestation died shortly after birth, and one live infant displayed unilateral renal polycystic disease however, all 25 of the surviving infants showed satisfactory postnatal growth and development.

Developmental Immunotoxicity In Rodents Exposed To Therapeutic Immunosuppressants During Pregnancy

Tion, resulting in increased autoimmunity (i.e., syngeneic graft-vs.-host disease) in the host animals (Glazier et al. 1983). Such results raise clear questions about the ability of cyclosporine A to induce or exacerbate autoimmune disease in gestationally exposed individuals. In support of this possibility, newborn mice dosed daily with cyclosporine A for the first week of postnatal life developed organ-specific autoimmune disease (Sakaguchi and Sakaguchi 1988, 1989). Such disease elicited in rodents appeared to be related to interference by cyclosporine A with the production or expansion of self-reactive T cells in the thymus (Sakaguchi and Sakaguchi 1992). Similarly, Classen (1998) found that cyclosporine A exposure during pregnancy in mice greatly increased prevalence of autoimmune disease in the offspring. These collective observations in irradiated and perinatal rodent exposure models, where new immune systems are being established in the presence of cyclosporine A, may suggest...

Reassuring fetal heart rate patterns

The majority of fetal arrhythmias are benign and spontaneously convert to normal sinus rhythm by 24 hours after birth. Persistent tachyarrhythmias may cause fetal hydrops if present for many hours to days. Persistent bradyarrhythmias are often associated with fetal heart disease (eg, cardiomyopathy related to lupus), but seldom result in hypoxia or acidosis in fetal life.

Obstetric And Developmental Effects

Indirect effects of maternal cocaine use include negative health consequences for mothers, which then impact their pregnancies. Women using cocaine are more likely to suffer arrhythmias, cardiac ischemias, and hemorrhagic strokes. In addition, they may develop pregnancy complications similar to preeclampsia, including hypertension, headaches, blurred vision, and placen-tal abruption, as well as vascular damage and uterine vasoconstriction, leading to problems such as spontaneous abortion and premature delivery (Church & Subramanian, 1997). Poor maternal weight gain and increased energy demands are another common effect of cocaine use in pregnant women, often leading to decreased birthweights and poorer prenatal nutrition (Church et al., 1991).

Timing Of Immune Assays For Detecting Developmental Immunotoxicity

The individual assay that afforded the highest predictive value (0.78) for immunotoxicity detection in adult mice was the antibody plaque forming cell (PFC) assay (Luster et al. 1992). This assay measures ability to produce specific antibody following challenge with allogeneic (sheep) red blood cells. The PFC assay has been used to demonstrate developmental immunotoxicity, for instance mice exposed to the nonsteroidal estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) during the first five days of life displayed inhibited PFC response to sheep red blood cells into adulthood (Kalland 1980). Exposure of mice to benzo a pyrene during gestation similarly resulted in a profound and persistently depressed PFC response in the progeny that was still present 18 months after birth (Urso and Johnson 1987). However, it is not certain how early in life the PFC assay or a PFC-like assay may be useful in mice for detecting immunotoxicity. B lymphocytes collected from fetal mouse livers acquire the capacity to...

Neurologic System Basic Care Plan Introduction

The neurologic system includes the central nervous system (CNS) consisting of the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, and the spinal cord the peripheral nervous system consisting of the motor (efferent) and sensory (afferent) nerves and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) consisting of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems that provide control of vital body functions. Alterations in the neurologic system affect the process of receiving, integrating, and responding to stimuli that enter the system. This results in disturbances with signs and symptoms dependent on the type and site of the impairment and the normal functioning of the system. The disturbances may be manifested by alterations in consciousness, sensation, or muscle function. Changes in the system also occur as the child develops neurologically and completes the growth and development requirements for adulthood this system is one of the last to complete development after birth.

Generation of the Different Types of Hair Cell Found in the Inner

Investigations of vestibular hair-cell differentiation during development in mammals (Sans and Chat 1982 Rtisch et al. 1998) and during regeneration of the avian vestibular organs (Rubel et al. 1991) have both suggested that, prior to the obvious distinction of two hair-cell types, there is a single cell type that morphologically resembles the mature type 2 hair cell. From the later appearance of morphologically distinct type 1 hair cells during regeneration in the avian utricle it was suggested that type 1 hair cells differentiate from the type 2s in a serial progression of development. However, earlier studies of spatiotemporal patterns of hair cell birth had suggested that hair cells in regions where type 1 cells predominate in the mature sensory epithelium (across the striola of the maculae and at the crest of the cristae) are born first, while hair cells in those regions where type 2 cells predominate are born later, indicating that type 1 and type 2 hair cells may be specified...

Spinal Muscular Atrophy

The differentiation of these complex disorders is increasingly being done by genetic analysis. The autosomal-recessive proximal spinal muscular atrophies have been linked to mutations or deletions in the survival motor neuron gene on chromosome 5q11.12-13.3. Variants of SMA also linked to chromosome 5q include SMA with arthrogryposis, and a very severe form with survival measured in weeks after birth.

Risk Of Fetal Or Neonatal Infection When Infection In The Mother Is Diagnosed Or Suspected

An infant born to a woman with active cervical infection with C. trachomatis is at risk of acquiring the infection during passage through the infected birth canal. Approximately 50-75 of infants born to infected women become infected at one or more anatomic sites, including the conjunctiva, nasopharynx, rectum, and vagina (Table 1). Overall, the nasopharynx is the most frequently infected site in the infant. Approximately 30-50 of infants born to Chlamydia-positive mothers will develop conjunctivitis (11-14). Studies in the 1980s identified C. trachomatis in 14-46 of infants younger than 1 month of age presenting with conjunctivitis. Chlamydia ophthalmia appears to occur much less frequently now secondary to systematic screening and treatment of pregnant women. The incubation period is 5-14 days after delivery. C. trachomatis is usually not detectable in the eye or nasopharynx immediately after birth unless there has been prolonged rupture of membranes. At least 50 of infants with...

Evidence That Mammary Stem Cells Exist

That mammary stem cells were suspected to exist in the first place was due to observations of the gland's impressive cellular dynamics. In humans, mammary gland growth in adulthood commences at puberty, when the parenchymal cells branch from a few blunt ending primary and secondary ducts into an elaborate tree with multiple terminal ducts and lobules Medina and Daniel, 1996 Russo and Russo, 2004 . Cell proliferation fluctuates with the menstrual cycle Potten et al., 1988 Shetty et al., 2005 , but during pregnancy there is a 10-fold increase in the number of alveoli as well as de novo formation of lobules by lateral budding from existing terminal ductules Russo and Russo, 2004 . After pregnancy and following weaning, the gland undergoes a controlled but complete remodeling during involution, resulting in a return to a size close to the prepregnant state. This process can be repeated through multiple pregnancies. These cellular dynamics led Taylor-Papadimitriou et al. 1983 to postulate...

Fetal Sensitization and Subsequent Immune Responses in Childhood

Experimental studies have shown that peripheral blood mononuclear cell sensitivity to allergens exists at birth (Kondo et al. 1992 Prescott et al. 1998 Warner et al. 1994 reviewed in Warner and Warner 2000). In particular, specific allergen-induced responses can be measured in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells as early as 22 weeks into gestation (Jones et al. 1996). Moreover, events after birth are believed to modify the developing immune response in newborns allergens, infections, diet, and gut microbial flora have all been implicated in the development, or not, of subsequent allergy (Warner and Warner 2000). The impact of diet on the development of allergies in newborns is now being recognized. The health benefits cited for breastfeeding include a reduction in childhood asthma (Oddy et al. 2002) and may be directly tied to gut microbial flora (Bjorksten et al. 1999 Holt et al.

Hirschsprungs Disease

Hirschsprung's disease is a condition caused by the absence of ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus which causes a mechanical obstruction. The most commonly affected area is the rectosigmoid region. Its typical presentation is as a failure to pass meconium during the first 24 hrs after birth, or it can also present as chronic constipation during the first year after birth. Diagnosis is confirmed by suction rectal biopsy with pathologic findings of the absence of ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus, increased cholinesterase staining and nerve bundle hypertrophy. Treatment involves resection of the affected bowel, with frozen section biopsy of the ostomy to ensure that there are ganglion cells present. Pull-through anastomosis is performed approximately 3 to 6 months later.

Brain Plasticity under Cochlear Implant Stimulation

The benefit of cochlear implantation crucially depends on the ability of the brain to learn to classify neural activity evoked by the cochlear implant. Brain plasticity is a complex property with massive developmental changes after birth. The present paper reviews the experimental work on auditory plasticity and focuses on the plasticity required for adaptation to cochlear implant stimulation. It reviews the data on developmental sensitive periods in auditory plasticity of hearing, hearing-impaired and deaf, cochlear-implanted, animals. Based on the analysis of the above findings in animals and comparable data from humans, a cochlear implantation within the first 2 years of age is recommended.

NOC Family Normalization

Inform parents that surgery may be performed within 48 hours after birth or be delayed to age of 3 months or until further neurologic function is assessed, to allow for better epithelialization to occur, and to reduce the possibility of the development of hydrocephalus use this information as reinforcement of physician information.

Clinical Photosensitivity in Lupus Erythematosus

Provocative Phototesting

A potential interplay of UV irradiation with specific autoantibodies, particularly anti-Ro SSA and anti-La SSB antibodies, has been previously reported, and, in different subtypes of LE, such as SCLE and NLE, photosensitivity has been found to be strongly associated with the presence of such antibodies (for review see Lee and Farris 1999).Results of an early study by LeFeber et al. (LeFeber et al. 1984) indicated that UV irradiation of cultured keratinocytes led to increased immunoglobulin G binding to the cell surface of keratinocytes several years later, Norris (Norris 1993) noted increased antibody binding as a result of in vivo UV irradiation to human skin. Golan et al. (Golan et al. 1992) independently observed UV-induced binding of antibodies from Ro SSA-positive sera to a small percentage of cultured keratinocytes. Nevertheless, the strongest evidence supporting the possibility that these antibodies play a role in the pathogenesis of LE comes from patients with NLE (Lee...

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

PAH exposure during gestation can cause developmental abnormalities in animals, including stillbirths, reabsorbed fetuses, decreased birth weight, birth defects, and infertility or sterility of the offspring (U.S. DHHS 1995). PAHs are also toxic to the developing fetal immune system. Exposure of experimental animals to B(a)P during immune system ontogenesis appears to result in persistent alterations in immune function. Mouse progeny of dams exposed to B(a)P during mid-pregnancy had abnormalities in their cell mediated and humoral immune response. For example, offspring of pregnant mice receiving 150 mg kg B(a)P from days 11 to 17 of gestation showed suppression in plaque-forming cells, graft-vs.-host, and mixed lymphocyte responses. Suppression of immune responses was detected during gestation, one week after birth, and still demonstrable at 18 months of age (Urso and Gengozian 1984). These animals further exhibited an 8 to 10 fold higher tumor incidence than vehicle-exposed...

Anomalies of the Urinary Tract Renal Agenesis

Collecting Duct Malformation

Renal agenesis may also be mimicked by a multicystic dysplastic malformation of the kidney later in life since the multiple cysts seen in the affected infant disappear with time. In 10 of cases unilateral renal agenesis is associated with aplasia of the ipsilateral adrenal gland. In all other cases a characteristic elongated feature of the adrenal gland is found. Bilateral renal agenesis (Potter syndrome) is incompatible with life and most infants die shortly after birth.

Clinical Outcomes of Congenital Hypothyroidism

Exposure to maternal hypothyroxinemia in later pregnancy is linked to an additional risk of subnormal visual skills, including impaired contrast sensitivity, slower response speeds and fine motor deficits 23 . In case that hypothyroidism occurs after birth, language and memory are brain functions predominantly affected.

Structure and Cells of the Cornea

The three cellular layers of the cornea differ markedly in mitotic and self-renewal abilities. In the corneal epithelium, mitotically active basal cells continuously renew the nonmitotic population of suprabasal cells, which subsequently flatten as they migrate to the surface, where they are lost by desquamation. The stromal keratocytes, on the other hand, show little cell division in the normal adult. They undergo rapid cell division after localization in the cornea in late embryogenesis, but after birth the keratocyte cell number stabilizes and little or no mitosis can be detected throughout the lifetime. In the case of inflammation or wounding, however, the stromal keratocytes become activated and mitotic. The phenotype of the activated keratocytes changes to resemble that of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, and connective tissue matrix secreted by these cells during wound-healing becomes opaque scars. After healing the cells become quiescent, but human corneal scars are very slow...

Laboratory Diagnosis Of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

With HIV or whose anti-Toxoplasma therapy is begun perinatally or soon after birth. Such treatment, if it is begun early in infection, reduces antigenic challenge by killing tachyzoites, thus blunting antibody synthesis. Serological rebound occurs in a majority of such infants 2-6 months following cessation of therapy (49-53). Typically, once established the Toxoplasma IgG titer will remain positive for life. Congenitally infected infants who have rapidly progressive HIV-1 disease may not be able to synthesize Toxoplasma-specific antibodies (38).

The TH2Bias of the Neonatal Immune System

The observations that the in utero environment supports TH2-type immune responses has given rise to a hypothesis that atopy in children derives from a persistence of this bias beyond birth (Donovan and Finn 1999 Holt et al. 1992 Holt and Macaubas 1997 Prescott et al. 1998a Prescott et al. 1998b). Normally, a shift occurs in an infant's immune system shortly after birth to favor the adult TH1-mediated responses. This developmental phenomenon is termed immune deviation (Holt et al. 1999). Atopic infants instead may increase the TH2 cells that were primed in utero (Kay 2001). Because macrophages that engulf microbes secrete IL-12, a cytokine that induces Natural Killer (NK) cells to produce IFNg and in general promotes TH1-type cells, it is believed that microbes are the chief stimulus of protective TH1-mediated immunity (Kay 2001). This idea leads into the hygiene hypothesis discussed earlier proposing that lack of immune deviation is due to an overly clean environment, that is, one...


This complete section across a mature human umbilical cord reveals at its surface a covering with a single-layered amnion epithelium. Inside, the umbilical cord is filled with a gelatinous or mucous connective tissue, named Wharton's jelly (see Figs. 170,171). Embedded in this gelatinous tissue are the c umbilical vein (right) and the two umbilical arteries (left). A section through the remnant of the allantoid canal is seen in the center. The vessels in the umbilical cord are always strongly contracted after birth. The specific gelatinous connective tissue consists of a wide-meshed network of long, stretched fi-brocytes with many interconnecting cell processes (see Figs. 170,171).

Smooth Muscle Artery

Myotubes from the mylohyoid muscle of an 11-week old fetus. They have arisen from mesodermal tissue aggregates known as somites. The development of skeletal muscle can be traced to a tissue in the somite, the myotome. Expression of the MyoD gene leads to the formation of very actively dividing muscle progenitor cells, which will then differentiate and form myoblasts. Myoblasts do not divide. They fuse with each other and form syncytes with sometimes thousands of nuclei. The number of fusion cycles determines the size of the fully developed muscle. Myoblasts synthesize muscle-specific proteins and myofibrils. The fusion and assembly of myoblasts to cylinder-shaped myotubes occurs concomitantly in a coordinated process. The myo-fibrils cause the longitudinal myotube striation. However, there is no crossly striation yet. The nuclei still reside in the cell center (cf. Fig.225). lo The number of muscle fibers does not change in vertebrae after birth. The .C study of the intricate...


In the second study, Santoni et al. (1998) found that the absolute number of all thymocyte subsets decreased during the first 30 days after birth, with CD4-CD8-, CD4+CD8-, and CD4-CD8+ thymocytes being preferentially affected. By PND 60 to PND 90 the CD4+CD8+, and the CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ thymocytes gradually recovered, while the total number of CD4-CD8- thymocytes increased. Thymocytes from PND 15, 30, 60 and 90 cypermethrin-exposed rats had suppressed ConA- and human recombinant IL-2 (hrIL-2)- induced LP responses, as well as decreased ability to produce and or release IL-2. These results indicate that prenatal cyper-methrin exposure affects several important steps in thymocyte differentiation pathways as demonstrated by the altered thymocyte subset distribution and altered thymocyte functions.


Erythropoietin is a 165 amino acid polypeptide with a molecular weight of 34 kDa. Heavy glycosylation leads to a 40 carbohydrate content. Ninety per cent is synthesised in the adult by peritubular capillary endothelial cells in the kidneys, and the remainder by centrilobular hepatocytes. In infants the hepato-cyte is the primary site of synthesis. The kidneys become the primary site of synthesis shortly after birth. The normal serum level ranges from 5 to 25 mg ml. The plasma half-life is around 3 to 8 hours.

Postnatal Adaptation

Directly after birth, the piglet takes up macromolecules from the intestinal lumen in a nonselective way. IgG from the sow's colostrum is transported into the organism of the newborn via enterocytes (Komuves et al. 1993 Komuves and Heath 1992). A rapid closure of the gut for the macromolecule uptake occurs within 24 and 48 hours after birth (Leece 1973). Colostral intake is essential for efficient immune reactions, and the germ-free colostrum-deprived virgin piglet can serve as model for the assessment of the development of defense against toxins (Lee et al. 1998). Lymphocytes migrating into the lactating mammary gland obviously provide the immunolog-ical information necessary for the production of secretory IgA that is released into the sow's milk for maintenance of humoral immunity in the offspring (Salmon 2000).

Newborn Screening

The ideal time to obtain the blood spot is 3-5 days after birth to minimize the false-positive high TSH due to the physiological neonatal TSH surge that elevates TSH levels and causes dynamic T4 and T3 changes in the first 1 or 2 days after birth. Early discharge of mothers postpartum has increased the ratio of false-positive TSH elevations. The difficulty in screening for CH using cord blood samples is in the handling and transport of the samples, making it an impractical method for mass screening 22 .


A high dietary intake of specific carbohydrates has been reported to affect the health of small groups of the population. The absence of disaccharidases in the brush border of the intestinal mucosa connected with genetic as well as contracted disorders gives rise to absorption disturbances and chronic diarrhea. Deficiencies of the disaccharidases sucrase and maltase are rare. On the other hand, lactase deficiency occurs rather frequently. Symptoms of lactose intolerance are usually mild or absent unless large quantities are taken, e.g., a liter of milk, which contains 50 g of lactose. The cause of lactase deficiency may be of three types. First, there is the rare congenital lactase deficiency, with symptoms showing shortly after birth. Secondly, there is a very common ethnic form which affects a large part of the human population. In Asians and many Africans, the enzyme activity disappears at varying ages between infancy and adultness. Lactase cannot be induced in


Human Deformities

Bilateral atresia presents with dyspnea soon after birth. Immediate surgical correction is required. A membranous atresia may be perforated and dilated using metal sounds, but if the atresia is bony it must be opened with a drill, using either a transnasal or transpalatal approach. Indwelling portex tubes are left in place for up to six weeks postoperatively to prevent a recurrence of the stenosis. Choanal atresia is well demonstrated on a computed tomograph (CT) scan, which is diagnostic. The arrow indicates the bony choanal atresia, which can be compared with the normal size. Closure of the posterior choanae with choanal atresia is well seen on this fiberoptic photograph of the postnasal space (b). Bilateral atresia presents with dyspnea soon after birth. Immediate surgical correction is required. A membranous atresia may be perforated and dilated using metal sounds, but if the atresia is bony it must be opened with a drill, using either a transnasal or transpalatal approach....


To understand the wiring of neural networks, which occurs, for a large part, after birth under the influence of sensory inputs, a major question is to understand the respective contributions of innate and acquired properties. For human characters, this question can be approached by the study of twins, monozygotic or not, nurtured in the same or different environments. The same is true for neurones, and MNCs are, here again, a unique model. In the rat, they are produced together in the same region of the neural tube from embryonic day El3 to El6, and they settle in their final position between El5 and El8 (Altman and Bayer, 1986). At that stage, they constitute a unique population of hypothalamo-neurohypophysial neurones, under the control of the Brn-2 gene (Nakai et al., 1995). Once settled, they further differentiate as oxytocin or


In normally born infants, plasma levels of vitamin C ( the most reactive antioxidant in plasma as shown in Figure 17.1) decreased significantly after birth as shown in Figure 17.4A. Infants with asphyxia showed a similar decline in vitamin C levels yet a significant difference remained between the two groups at days 3 and 5. FIGURE 17.4 Changes in plasma levels of vitamin C (A), total coenzyme Q-10 (total Q-10) (B), and oxidized form of coenzyme Q (CoQ-10) percentage in total Q-10 ( CoQ-10) (C) in normal (B) and asphyxiated (J) infants after birth. *, **, *** indicate significant differences (P 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001, respectively) compared to values of normal infants at birth and indicate significant differences (P 0.05 and 0.001, respectively) compared to the values of infants with asphyxia at birth, as determined by f-test. Italic numbers show P values between normal infants and infants born with asphyxia at the same age, as determined by f-test. NS stands for not significant. From...


The prognosis of infants with congenital syphilis has not been well studied, but it should be excellent if neonates are identified soon after birth and are provided with effective penicillin therapy early in infancy. Infants treated for early congenital syphilis are at risk of developing such late complications or sequelae as hypopituitarism (62), interstitial keratitis, and teeth as well as bone and joint abnormalities (25).


Finding dead infants in sewers, trash dumps, and public bathrooms is fairly common in large metropolitan areas. These infants are either victims of neonaticide or are stillborn. The mother is usually the individual who abandoned the child. If apprehended, her defense is usually that the child was stillborn she panicked and disposed of the body. Thus, in cases of suspected neonaticide, the first fact to establish is whether the child was alive at the time of birth. This is often one of the most difficult things to do. The presence of milk or any food material in the stomach would indicate that the child was alive. Unfortunately, in cases of neonaticide, the killing usually occurs immediately after birth and one does not find milk or food material in the stomach.


During organogenesis of the immune system, as well as after birth, the hemato-poietic tissues are highly susceptible to damage from irradiation. The effects of irradiation have been described as varying from abnormal immune responses to imbalances in blood cell populations and leukemias (Boniver and Janowski 1986 Miller and Benjamin 1985 Nold et al. 1987). Lymphocytes, and in particular lym-phoid progenitor cells in the bone marrow, are known to be among the most sensitive cells to radiation injury (Miller and Benjamin 1985 Nold et al. 1987 Platteau et al. 1989). Dose-response studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to single or sub-chronic low-dose X-ray exposure on subsequent development of the immune system in experimental animals or humans is, as is the case with many of the preceding developmental immunotoxic agents, extremely limited. An early study reported impaired antibody production in adult mice irradiated with a single 0.5 Gy dose of x-rays at either day 5 or between...

Injury to the brain

Another common form of brain injury is cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy is the term used to define a wide range of movement disorders that occur during or shortly after birth. These disorders are caused by an accident (falls or other sudden trauma to the brain), brain infection (bacterial meningitis or viral encephalitis), or medical incidents during childbirth (such as birth asphyxia trauma, when oxygen flow to the brain has been cut off tempo-rarily).16 All of these conditions lead to neuronal death to parts of the brain similar to that experienced with stroke. Unlike stroke, however, the motor effects are quite different. Most often (80 of the time), these children experience what is known as spastic cerebral palsy.7 In spastic cerebral palsy, the muscles are stiffly and permanently contracted, leading to difficulties in performing motor tasks. Other types of cerebral palsy include dyskinetic cerebral palsy, characterized by uncontrolled, slow, writhing movements ataxic cerebral...


In the United States, TB continues to be a problem, especially among recent immigrants from high-risk countries and persons who have been in contact with adults with contagious disease. Congenital TB, tuberculosis acquired prior to birth, is quite rare. Transmission to infants after birth, either from the mother or other contagious household contacts, is more common. The diagnosis may be difficult, and a high index of suspicion as well as awareness of the risk factors and presenting symptoms are important. The presentation of TB in infants may be similar to other more common infections, and currently available diagnostic tests have low sensitivity in children. Diagnosis is often based on the clinical presentation of the infant coupled with finding TB disease in the mother or other close contacts. Tuberculosis may be rapidly progressive and life threatening to infants and young children. Therefore, when contagious pulmonary disease is diagnosed in an adult who has contact with...


Over time and the stereocilia fuse together, resulting in several giant stereocilia 20 days after birth (Self et al. 1999). In addition, studies of fibroblasts from sv sv mice showed a reduction in both secretion and the size of the Golgi network (Warner et al. 2003). Mutations in MYO6 were subsequently found to underlie NSHL DFNA22 and DFNB37 (Melchionda et al. 2001 Ahmed et al. 2003a) and SHL (Mohiddin et al. 2004).

Diagnostic Approach

Routine screening of neonates is not clinically justified based on the available evidence that many healthy neonates may be colonized without consequence. However, if there is clinical, radiologic, or laboratory evidence of pneumonia, meningitis, or overall instability suggestive of sepsis, particularly in preterm neonates in whom there are no obvious alternative etiologies, infection with M. hominis or Ureaplasma spp should be considered, and appropriate diagnostic studies should be obtained. It may also be useful to assess preterm neonates whose birth weight is less than 1250 g for the presence of ureaplasmas if they have respiratory distress that lasts more than a few hours after birth. Obtaining mycoplasmal cultures is particularly important if routine bacteriological studies fail to yield an etiologic agent within 2-3 days.


Form the future stria vascularis and Reissner's membrane. A weak expression can also be detected in the mesenchyme surrounding the duct. Interestingly, toward E18.5, the expression of Eya4 shifts toward the lower part of the cochlear duct, specifically the greater and lesser epithelial ridges and later to cells derived from the spiral limbus, the organ of Corti, and the spiral prominence. Expression is also detected in the cells of the ossifying bony capsule of the inner ear during the first 2 weeks after birth. In the developing vestibular system expression was reported to be localized mainly to the developing sensory epithelium (Wayne et al. 2001).

Wheres Mamma

Filial imprinting is not unique to birds. Tree shrew pups will imprint on the nursing mother during the second postnatal week. If removed from the nest during this period, a pup will not learn to follow its real mother, and it can be induced to follow a cloth permeated with the odor of a foster mother (Zippelius, 1972). Similarly, rat pups come to prefer their nest based on the mother's odor during the first few postnatal weeks, and this preference can be modified by providing a novel odorant during this period (Brunjes and Alberts, 1979). Subantarctic fur seal pups must learn their mother's vocalization within five days after birth. The mother seals set out on two to three week foraging trips, and the pups locate their mother within minutes of her return using the sound of her vocalization (Charrier et al., 2001). Newborn humans also display a preference for their mother. When infants are able to elicit either their mother's voice or the voice of another female by the rate at which...

Toxoplasma gondii

Infections due to Toxoplasma gondii are often asymptomatic. In case of acute disease, the protozoa may cause lymphadenopathy, and lymphocytosis persisting for a few days or weeks. T. gondii cysts can remain in infected tissues (muscle, brain) for long periods and reactivate if the immune system becomes compromised, e.g. by cytotoxic or immunosuppressive therapy or in patients with AIDS in which case the infection may be fulminant or fatal. Transplacental infection may also occur during pregnancy. This may cause stillbirth or perinatal death. The baby may also suffer from congenital toxoplasmosis involving the ocular, auditory and or central nervous system. Symptoms may appear months or years after birth. A proportion of infected babies may show symptoms of hydro-cephalus, intracranial calcification, chorioretinitis causing mental retardation and blindness (Smith, 1999). In immunocompromised individuals it may also cause cerebritis, chorioretinitis, pneumonia, myocardititis, rash and...

Heavy Metals

The investigators designed the study to determine effects from prenatal exposure only. Female rats were fed low to moderate doses of lead acetate during pregnancy. Their offspring received no additional lead exposure after birth. Various immunotoxic endpoints, including IgE levels, were evaluated in the offspring at 13 weeks (a developmental stage analogous to that of human adulthood). Although dams in lead-exposed groups did not show immunotoxic effects compared to controls, a number of immunomodulations were detected in their adult offspring. The offspring that had been exposed to lower (100 ppm) doses displayed elevated IgE levels. Those that had been exposed to moderate and high dose levels (250 to 500 ppm) displayed altered cytokine and interferon levels and depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) function (250 ppm dose group) as manifested by a decrease in their delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. In further support of lead's influence on immune deviation, a study...

Child Development

In conclusion a considerable increase in our appreciation of the physiology, immunology and clinical aspects of thyroid function in relation to gestation has occurred during the past decade. Important research into thyroidal influence on fetal development as well as delivery of thyroid hormones to the fetus will drive future clinical studies to improve recognition and management of thyroid disease before, during and after pregnancy.


The effect that prenatal exposure of rats to acyclovir has on immune system development was examined by Stahlmann et al. (1992). Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 100 mg acyclovir kg body wt either with one or three (i.e., 1x100 and 3x100, respectively) s.c. injections on GD 10. There was considerable mortality during the first week after birth of pups from dams given 3x100 mg acyclovir kg. Body weights of 12-week-old offspring born to dams exposed to 3x100 were reduced by 12.5 to 18.8 compared to controls for males and females respectively. Thymus