Trauma, mass in anterior cranial fossa (meningioma, glioma, osteoma, abscess)
Medial sphenoid wing4
Ipsilateral anosmia and optic nerve atrophy, contralateral papilledema
Medial sphenoid wing mening-ioma, mass in anterior cranial fossa
Medial/lateral sphenoid wing4
Pain in ipsilateral eye, forehead, temple; exophthalmos, diplopia
V/1, III, IV
Medial (eye pain) or lateral (temporal pain) sphenoid wing meningioma
Orbital apex, superior orbital fissure5
Ipsilateral: incomplete or complete external ophthal-moplegia, sensory deficit on forehead; papilledema, visual disturbances, optic atrophy
II, III, IV, V/1, VI
Tumor (pituitary adenoma, meningioma, metastasis, naso-pharyngeal tumor, lymphoma), granuloma (TB, fungal infection, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, arteritis), trauma, infraclinoid ICA aneurysm
III, IV, V/1, VI
Same as in orbital apex syndrome + cavernous sinus thrombosis, carotid-cavernous fistula
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