There are old mushroom hunters, and bold mushroom hunters, but no old, bold mushroom hunters. Avoid pure white mushrooms, little (and large) brown mushrooms, red- or pink-pored boletes (Boletus species), and all decomposing mushrooms. Cook all wild mushrooms. Cooking does not inactivate all mushroom toxins, and even edible mushrooms, if allowed to age or deteriorate, may become toxic. Select mushrooms at the grocery, not in the woods. Figure 14.6 Lepiota subclypeolaria (amatoxic lepiota). An amatoxin-containing poisonous Lepiota species mushroom. (Courtesy of Charles P. Sea, M.D., Department of Emergency Medicine, Ochsner Clinic Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA. Original Source U.S. Government Document, U.S. Forest Service Document, 1979, Wild Mushrooms of North America. ) Figure 14.6 Lepiota subclypeolaria (amatoxic lepiota). An amatoxin-containing poisonous Lepiota species mushroom. (Courtesy of Charles P. Sea, M.D., Department of Emergency Medicine, Ochsner Clinic Foundation...
Lesser calamint grows south of the Alps and is sometimes referred to as having magic aromatizing properties. Lesser calamint is the most important aromatic wild herb in central Italian cookery, and is used for cooking wild mushrooms (especially Boletus edulis) and cultivated zucchini. In Basilicata (southern Italy) lesser calamint is added to rennet during the making of a goat's cheese called casieddu, characterized by its unique wild mint taste derived from the essential oils of Cala-mintha nepeta.
Transporters can also mediate hepatotoxicity. For example, the sulfate conjugate of the antidiabetic troglitazone can cause troglitazone hepatotoxicity by inhibiting OATP1B1 and OATP1B3.135 Phalloidin, the major toxin of the mushroom Amanitaphalloides, enters hepatocytes via OATP1B1 and -1B3, and cyclosporin A is reported to be the most potent competitive inhibitor of OATP1B1-mediated phalloidin transport in the liver.136 Several other drugs also inhibit the basolateral OATPs. The fibrate gemfibrozil interacts with statins by inhibiting OATP1B1. Thus drug-drug interactions do not concern only the inhibition of metabolic enzyme, but may involve the first line of hepatocyte transporters. These hepatic impacts of the basolateral transporters have their counterpart at the apical pole. The multiple ABC transporters may also be responsible for variable drug disposition. For example, giving patients receiving digoxin the P-gp inhibitor verapamil decreases the biliary clearance of digoxin by...
The site area should have good vegetation cover if possible. Trees and plants provide shade, help to prevent soil erosion, allow recharge of the groundwater supplies and help in reducing dust. It may sometimes be necessary, however, to destroy poisonous trees or plants, for example where populations are accustomed to collecting berries or mushrooms.
A variety of plants and mushrooms contain pyridoxine (a form of vitamin B6) antagonists. The antipyridoxine factors have been identified as hydrazine derivatives. Antipyridoxine factors have also been found in wild mushrooms, the common commercial edible mushroom, and the Japanese mushroom shiitake. Commercial and shiitake mushrooms contain agaritine. Agaritine is hydrolyzed in the mushroom by y-glutamyl-transferase to the active agent 4-hydroxymethylphenylhydrazine (Figure 3.5). The hydrolysis of agaritine is accelerated if the cells of the mushrooms are disrupted. Careful handling of the mushrooms and immediate blanching after cleaning and cutting can prevent hydrolysis.
Occassionaly an experienced forensic analyst can just look at an exhibit in a drug case and determine the probable nature of the substance. However, probable natures are not enough for an identification, and most examiners will usually conduct more than one test before reporting the presence of a controlled substance. The morphology of botanical substances such as marijuana and the peyote cactus are familiar enough to many laboratory analysts. Marijuana is one of those controlled substances which is examined with such frequency in the laboratory that a preliminary identification is probable based on the morphology of the botanical substance, gross physical appearance, texture, and odor. However, even after a microscopic examination of the cystolithic hairs using a micrcoscope, the modified Duquenois-Levine test is usually run to corroborate the identification. The peyote cactus with its button-like appearance is also unique. In a like manner, the identification of the opium poppy...
A standard method for screening depigmentation agents is the isolated tyrosinase inhibition test. Mushroom tyrosinase has been commonly used, and the suppression of tyrosinase could be demonstrated when dose-dependent inhibition was demonstrated with hydroquinone as an effective control. Another kind of tyrosi-nase assay is noninhibitory or nonsuppressive-type reactions of melanogenesis. According to Mishima (8), melanogenesis can also be hindered by tyrosinase
Foods high in potassium can help restore potassium levels, as well as prevent further potassium loss. Collaboration between the nurse and a registered dietitian can ensure accurate teaching on dietary maintenance of potassium levels. Common foods high in potassium are bananas, cantaloupe, raisins, skim milk, avocados, mushrooms, potatoes, spinach, and tomatoes.
Cyclopeptide-containing mushrooms (potentially lethal hepatotoxicity) Monomethylhydrazine-containing mushrooms (B6-inhibitors, mimic isoniazid INH toxicity) Muscarine-containing mushrooms (muscarinic, cholinergic toxidrome) Coprine-containing mushrooms ( disulfiram reaction following ethanol intake) Ibotenic acid-muscimol-containing mushrooms (GABA-nergic) Psilocybin-containing mushrooms (hallucinogenic, mellow mushrooms ) Orellanine-containing mushrooms (nephro-toxic, oliguric renal failure) Miscellaneous gastrointestinal toxin-containing mushrooms (nonlethal nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea)
Figure 14.5 Cortinarius collinitus (deadly cort). Nephrotoxic Cortinarius species. (Courtesy of Charles P. Sea, M.D., Department of Emergency Medicine, Ochsner Clinic Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA. Original Source U.S. Government Document, U.S. Forest Service Document, 1979, Wild Mushrooms of North America. ) Figure 14.5 Cortinarius collinitus (deadly cort). Nephrotoxic Cortinarius species. (Courtesy of Charles P. Sea, M.D., Department of Emergency Medicine, Ochsner Clinic Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA. Original Source U.S. Government Document, U.S. Forest Service Document, 1979, Wild Mushrooms of North America. )
The term muscarinic is derived from the poisonous mushroom Amanita muscaria, which contains muscarine. Muscarine produces parasympathomimetic effects after injection. A number of different subtypes of muscarinic receptors have been discovered, encoded by distinct but homologous genes. These receptors have been termed M1-M5, and different types are found in different proportions in different tissues. Despite their different genetic origin, the subtypes display remarkably similar patterns of affinity for various agonists and antagonists, and some, such as zamifenacin, an M3 recep
Maya art depicts the water lily in conjunction with two other psychoactive substances(the toad and the mushroom), and ancient Egyptian iconography portrays the blue water lily in close relationship with the opium poppy and the mandrake (Mandragora spp., also well known in European folklore). The specialist on narcotic plants William Emboden has long held the view that both the Maya and the Egyptians utilized lillies for their psychoactive effects. Alkaloids extracted from N. ampla are very close in chemical structure to apomorphine, which is a synthetic derivative of morphine. Emboden tried the Old World water lily (N. nouchali var. caerulea) for himself and found that the extracts of the flower caused visual and auditory hallucinations. However, there is no ethnographic or archaeological evidence for the psychoactive use of either species, and their cultural role remains uncertain.
Top view of Portia fimbriates left AM eye showing probable positions of eye muscles. Five muscle bands attached to the eye tube allow the retina to be moved (inset) in the horizontal and vertical planes, and rotated about 30deg in either direction. Although the corneal lens is wider than the eye tube (giving the eye its distinctive mushroom shape), the retina's field of view is never blocked because at any one time it samples only a small part of the corneal lens's field of view and because it can be moved to where the images from the sides of the corneal lens are visible. (The muscles and their numbers are taken from M. F. Land, 1969b. The eye tube is adapted from D. S. Williams and McIntyre, 1980.) Top view of Portia fimbriates left AM eye showing probable positions of eye muscles. Five muscle bands attached to the eye tube allow the retina to be moved (inset) in the horizontal and vertical planes, and rotated about 30deg in either direction. Although the corneal lens is wider than...
The neurotransmitter released by the postganglionic presynaptic nerve terminal is ACh, which acts on postsynaptic mus-carinic receptors on the membrane of the target organ or tissue. These are so called because muscarine, an alkaloid derived from a poisonous mushroom, Amanita muscaria, is an agonist at the receptor sites. The muscarinic receptor is an important target for drugs (see p. 246). ACh released from nerve terminals mainly exerts
In addition to the health concerns and other societal strains raised by the accident and the response measures that were put in place, the disaster had serious socioeconomic consequences. In Belarus, the most seriously affected of the three adjacent republics, 38,000 square kilometers, or 18 of the land area of this republic, was more or less severely contaminated, especially by radioactive cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30 years. In this republic, 300,000 hectares of farmland were taken out of production for this reason. Some 1 million hectares of the forests were contaminated to varying degrees 1 . The population was advised not to eat mushrooms or berries from these forests, thereby depriving them of an otherwise welcome dietary supplement and favorite pastime. In addition to losses in agricultural production, the market for food products from the region was completely lost, as was tourism, another major source of income in some districts. The affected parts of Ukraine and...
Incidence rate (United States) 5 mushroom poisonings per 100,000 persons per year. 95 of toxic mushrooms ingested cannot be identified. 50 of patients are asymptomatic, 25 require treatment, 15 of these have minor toxicity, 5 moderate toxicity, and 0.2 major toxicity. 1-2 patients die of mushroom poisoning each year (United States). Figure 14.1 Anatomy of a mushroom. The anatomy of a poisonous mushroom, Amanita muscaria or fly amanita, with the juvenile mushroom button (right) and the mature adult mushroom or toadstool (left). Figure 14.1 Anatomy of a mushroom. The anatomy of a poisonous mushroom, Amanita muscaria or fly amanita, with the juvenile mushroom button (right) and the mature adult mushroom or toadstool (left). TABLE 14.1 An Onset Time and Target System Classification of Mushroom Poisoning by Common Mushroom Species Clitocybe acromelalga Clitocybe amoenolens (Poison dwarf bamboo mushroom) Psilocybe spp. (Mellow mushrooms)
Both of these enzymes catalyze the oxidation of ortho- and or para-diphenols to their respective quinones, which may subsequently react non-enzymically through a chain of reactions to form dark brown to black polymeric melanoidins. This is the typical sequence of reactions observed during the browning process that occurs when many fruits, other plant tissues, or Basidiomycete fungi (e.g., mushrooms) are cut or damaged in any way. Consequently, these enzymes are of great interest to food biochemists and technologists, and much effort has been and is devoted to methods of controlling enzymic browning. Some o-DPOs can also carry out hydroxylation reactions (e.g., tyrosine to 3,4-dihy-droxyphenylalanine hence the origin of the name tyrosinase ). The basic reactions involved are summarized in Figure C4.1.1.
Many edible Basidiomycete fungi (e.g., mushrooms) and some fruits contain laccases. These may be measured spectrophotometrically in the same way as catecholases (see Alternate Protocol 1) by using laccase-specific substrates 10 mM 4-hydroxyindole (Cai et al., 1993), 4 mM syringaldazine (Harkin and Obst, 1973 Leonowicz and Grzywnowicz, 1981), 10 mM toluquinol, or 10 mM guiacol. The spectrophotometer should be set at 615 nm for 4-hydroxyindole, 525 nm for syringaldazine, or 452 nm for guiacol and toluquinol. The buffer should be 0.2 M phosphate (KH2PO4 Na2HPO4), pH 6.5. 4-Hydroxyindole and or syringaldazine are the substrates of choice since they yield distinctive bright blue or bright mauve products however, it should be noted that laccases from higher plants do not always react with syringaldazine (Harvey and Walker, 1999).
Although catecholases are by far the most common form of DPO encountered in the food industry, laccases do occur in some fruits (Mayer and Harel, 1968 Harel et al., 1970 Joel et al., 1978 Dijkstra and Walker, 1991). However, both catecholase and laccase activity are common in many edible Basidiomycete fungi including mushrooms and shitake (Ferrar et al., 1995). Both of these enzymes use Cu as their prosthetic group. Although they carry out similar reactions, the actual reaction mechanisms are quite different. Both enzymes can oxidize a similar range of ortho-diphenols, but laccases can oxidize a far wider range of ortho- and para-diphenols plus other compounds. Syringaldazine is widely used as a test substrate for laccase, but it is not always oxidized by laccases from higher plants (Harvey and Walker, 1999).
In most studies of DPO activity, the main objective is usually a simple comparison of the potential of a particular tissue to undergo enzyme-catalyzed browning, for example, a comparison of the potential for enzymic browning of different apple or mushroom cultivars. Related to this are comparative studies of different inhibitors and processing regimes to control enzymic browning. In these circumstances, it is usually sufficient to provide comparative measurements rather than absolute values of enzyme activity, in which case results can be expressed in arbitrary units such as AmV min for O2 electrode assays or AA min for spectrophotometric assays. If more precise units are required, the O2 electrode results should be expressed as Anmol O2 min g protein.
Another cause of massive hepatic necrosis is ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. Amanita phalloides is one of the most commonly encountered poisonous mushrooms in the United States. It is the most dangerous, accounting for almost all fatalities. It is found in many regions of the U.S., including California, the Pacific Northwest, and the Northeast. It contains cyclopeptide toxins,73 which are potent hepatotoxins with no taste or smell that are not destroyed by cooking. Ingestion of even one mushroom can cause death. Following ingestion, there are no symptoms for several hours. Then, the victims develop nausea, vomiting, severe abdominal cramps, and watery diarrhea. They then seem to be getting better, when they develop hepatic and renal failure, become jaundiced, and develop a coagulopathy and impaired neurologic status. The signs of fulminant hepatic necrosis may not appear for a day or two. The mortality rate for Amanita phalloides poisoning is 20-30 .
My father was a mechanical engineer but had a special passion for chemistry. He conveyed this interest to me with such enthusiasm that, by the age of 13, when I had my first chemistry lessons at school, I knew that I wanted to be a chemist. On completion of my first degree in chemical engineering at the University of Technology in Lund, Sweden, in 1969, I therefore continued my studies there as a graduate student in the Organic Chemistry Department. I still regard my thesis work on the toxic principle of the mushroom Coprinus atramentarius, supervised by Professor Borje Wickberg, as my most important piece of work, which set the tone for the rest of my career. The goal of my thesis work was to isolate and identify the toxic principle of the gray inky cap mushroom C. atramentarius. It had been known for some time that this mushroom was edible and palatable, but if eaten along with alcohol it caused flushing, nausea, vomiting, palpitation, and increased blood pressure. Numerous...
There are three types of influenza virus as classified by their serological cross-reactivity with viral matrix proteins and soluble nucleoprotein (A, B, and C). Only types A and B are known to cause severe diseases to humans. Type B is only found in humans, while type A occurs naturally in birds and mammals such as pigs and horses. Influenza, an orthomyxovirus, is a 100-nm lipid-enveloped virus. On the surface of the influenza virus there are two glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and NA, which appear as spikes protruding out of the viral envelope. There are between 50 and 100 NA spikes per virus.91 Electron microscopic images of the NA spikes reveal a mushroom-shaped molecule made up of a box-like head of about 80 x 80 x 40 A. It has a narrow centrally attached stalk (15A wide and 100 A long) which terminates in a hydrophobic knob anchored in the viral envelope.92 The spikes can be released by detergents and digested by pronase to release the NA 'heads,' which retain full antigenic...
Various food allergies have been implicated in MS. Some studies have found that MS is more common in areas with high intakes of dairy products or gluten-containing grains, such as wheat, rye, oats, and barley. As a result, the consumption of dairy products or gluten has been implicated in MS. Other proposed allergic foods have included yeast, mushrooms and other fungi, fermented products (such as vinegar), sugar, potatoes, red meat, fruits, vegetables, caffeine, and tea and other tannin-containing foods.
In 1806, Alibert (1768-1837) presented an extraordinary skin disease which he described in detail under the name of Pian fungoides'' in 1814 and as Mycosis fun-goides'' in 1832 in his second volume of Monographie des Dermatoses. He called this a strange disorder of the skin with mushroom-like tumors'' (1,2). The case he observed was a patient named Lucas. The disease began with a desquamating rash ( eruption furfuracee''). Lucas died 5 years later of illness with numerous tumors on his face and body. Tumeurs fongoides (fungal stage mushroom-like tumors of different size) Periode fongoidique, mycositique (fungal stage mushroom-like tumors of different size)
According to the DA hyperfunction hypothesis of schizophrenia, agents that act to increase dopaminergic transmission should induce psychosis in normal individuals, and should precipitate or exacerbate psychosis in schizophrenics. Consistent with this, a large number of studies have demonstrated psychotomimetic effects of amphetamine 17, cocaine 19, and methylphenidate 20, all compounds that act to increase DA release. Interestingly, these effects do not seem to be mimicked by direct-acting DA agonists, suggesting that a degree of circuit-based spatial selectivity may be important for the psychotomimetic effects of enhanced dopaminergic transmission. The 5HT hypothesis of schizophrenia is driven largely by the hallucinogenic effects of LSD 21, and the finding that LSD interacts with 5HT receptors. Indolamines such as LSD 21 and psilocybin 22, and phenethylamines including dimethoxymethylamphetamine 23 and mescaline 24, constitute the two main classes of hallucinogens. Interestingly,...
Flavor enhancers intensify or modify the flavor of food. They have no taste of their own. They include substances such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and various nucleotides. These substances are present in Japanese seaweed (traditionally used for seasoning), mushrooms, tomatoes, peas, meat, and cheese. They are often used in soups, sauces and oriental food. No known adverse effects of flavor enhancers have been reported, except for the case of MSG. Humans have been described to be sensitive to food to which MSG had been added. The symptoms include numbness, general weakness, and heart palpitations (see also Part 2, Chapter 2).
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