Blood Lymphocytes And Demyelination

The classic example of demyelination of the CNS is multiple sclerosis (MS), in which a chronic inflammatory lesion is characterised by a sharply demarcated plaque containing preserved axons denuded of myelin. Demyelination also occurs in infectious diseases such as progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy and acute disseminated leucoencephalitis, but it is the disseminated focal form of MS that will be addressed in this review article. Multiple sclerosis is often considered to be an...

Neurotrophic Factors And Receptors 921 General Aspects of Neurotrophic Factors

Developing neurons become dependent for their survival on neurotrophic factors, typically 10- to 30-kDa proteins which originate from their neural surroundings and or innervation territory.12 The prototypical nerve growth factor (NGF) was recognized for its ability to promote survival, neurite outgrowth, and expression of transmitter-synthesizing enzymes of developing peripheral neurons.1 Neurotrophic factors, which typically promote the growth (cell size or neurite length) of neurons, have...

References

B., Chemokines, leucocyte trafficking, and inflammation, Curr. Opin. Immunol., 6, 665, 1994. 2. Pan, Y., Lloyd, C., Zhou, H., Dolich, S., Deeds, J., Gonzalo, J.-A., Vath, J., Gosselin, M., Ma, J., Dussault, B., Woolf, E., Alperin, G., Culpepper, J., Gutierrez-Ramos, J. C., and Gearing, D., Neurotactin, a membrane-anchored chemokine upregulated in brain inflammation, Nature, 387, 611, 1997. 3. Perry, V H., Bell, M. D., Brown, H. C., and Matyszak, M. K., Inflammation...

Glial Scar Formation In The

Glial Scar Mri Diffusion

Penetrating injuries of the CNS initiate a complex cellular wounding response comprising sequential and overlapping events. Acute haemorrhage and inflammation is associated with neuron degeneration this is followed by glial collagen scar formation, which is accompanied by an abortive regeneration response by axotomised but still viable neurons.1-3 The cellular events that culminate in glial scar formation are complex and are summarised in Figure 8.1. Whilst this figure illustrates the process...

Function During Development And Natural Apoptosis

The physiological reduction of the initially overproduced neurons is accepted as a functionally significant regulatory process of retinal morphogenesis.1438 Genesis of new nerve cells, creation and remodelling of connections with target neurons, final differentiation and function-dependent consolidation of stable synaptic contacts within the CNS, are accomplished by natural disposal of substantial numbers of neurons (reviewed by Raff et al.39). As microglia represent the intraretinal form of...

The Pathological Developing Brain

At the time of birth the CNS contains large numbers of microglial cells, most of which are of the intermediate type with stout cellular processes Figures 5.1 to 5.3 . These young microglia, like their adult ramified counterparts, are exquisitely sensitive to neuronal death and are quickly activated following CNS injury. In fact, most microglia in the developing CNS are in an activated state as judged by their morphology and phagocytic activity. Intermediate microglia are active in the...