Editors

Martin Berry, M.B., Ch.B., B.Sc., Ph.D., D.Sc., M.D., FRCPath, is currently investigating in vivo neurotrophin stimulation of axonal regeneration and inhibition of scarring in the visual system, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord, as well as growth factor control of the development of oligodendrocytes in the anterior medullary velum at Guy's Hospital in London. He accepted the post of Professor of Anatomy and Chairman of the Division of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the hospital in 1982, where he...

Primary Immune Response To Antigens In The

Early observations relating to the persistence of tumour and tissue allografts1011 and of viruses12 when placed in the brain suggested that this organ was a site of immune privilege, in which antigens were poorly immunogenic and did not elicit an inflammatory response. To elicit an immune response, antigen must be able to leave the brain, either directly or following endocytosis by a predendritic cell, and arrive at a lymphoid organ. The character of the immune response induced, including the...

Blood Lymphocytes And Demyelination

The classic example of demyelination of the CNS is multiple sclerosis (MS), in which a chronic inflammatory lesion is characterised by a sharply demarcated plaque containing preserved axons denuded of myelin. Demyelination also occurs in infectious diseases such as progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy and acute disseminated leucoencephalitis, but it is the disseminated focal form of MS that will be addressed in this review article. Multiple sclerosis is often considered to be an...

Neurotrophic Factors And Receptors 921 General Aspects of Neurotrophic Factors

Receptors For Neurotrophic Factors

Developing neurons become dependent for their survival on neurotrophic factors, typically 10- to 30-kDa proteins which originate from their neural surroundings and or innervation territory.12 The prototypical nerve growth factor (NGF) was recognized for its ability to promote survival, neurite outgrowth, and expression of transmitter-synthesizing enzymes of developing peripheral neurons.1 Neurotrophic factors, which typically promote the growth (cell size or neurite length) of neurons, have...

References

B., Chemokines, leucocyte trafficking, and inflammation, Curr. Opin. Immunol., 6, 665, 1994. 2. Pan, Y., Lloyd, C., Zhou, H., Dolich, S., Deeds, J., Gonzalo, J.-A., Vath, J., Gosselin, M., Ma, J., Dussault, B., Woolf, E., Alperin, G., Culpepper, J., Gutierrez-Ramos, J. C., and Gearing, D., Neurotactin, a membrane-anchored chemokine upregulated in brain inflammation, Nature, 387, 611, 1997. 3. Perry, V H., Bell, M. D., Brown, H. C., and Matyszak, M. K., Inflammation...

Glial Scar Formation In The

Glial Scar Mri Diffusion

Penetrating injuries of the CNS initiate a complex cellular wounding response comprising sequential and overlapping events. Acute haemorrhage and inflammation is associated with neuron degeneration this is followed by glial collagen scar formation, which is accompanied by an abortive regeneration response by axotomised but still viable neurons.1-3 The cellular events that culminate in glial scar formation are complex and are summarised in Figure 8.1. Whilst this figure illustrates the process...

Function During Development And Natural Apoptosis

The physiological reduction of the initially overproduced neurons is accepted as a functionally significant regulatory process of retinal morphogenesis.1438 Genesis of new nerve cells, creation and remodelling of connections with target neurons, final differentiation and function-dependent consolidation of stable synaptic contacts within the CNS, are accomplished by natural disposal of substantial numbers of neurons (reviewed by Raff et al.39). As microglia represent the intraretinal form of...

The Pathological Developing Brain

At the time of birth the CNS contains large numbers of microglial cells, most of which are of the intermediate type with stout cellular processes Figures 5.1 to 5.3 . These young microglia, like their adult ramified counterparts, are exquisitely sensitive to neuronal death and are quickly activated following CNS injury. In fact, most microglia in the developing CNS are in an activated state as judged by their morphology and phagocytic activity. Intermediate microglia are active in the...