Carcinogenesis Is A Multistep Procedure

The carcinogenic process is a multistep procedure, in which cells acquire properties of the malignant phenotype in a step-by-step manner. This phenotype is characterized by increased resistance to toxic compounds, enhanced cell turnover, uncontrolled growth, and capability of invasion and metastasis.1 The stepwise development of such changes can be summarized sequentially into three phases: initiation, promotion, and progression2 (Figure 23.1). The first phase, initiation, involves a mutagenic event leading to a permanent genetic alteration. During the second phase, promotion, the initiated cells are stimulated to proliferate by a promoter, forming clonal cell expansions referred to as preneoplastic foci, or nodules. In the final step of the carcinogenic process, progression, preneoplastic cells aquire genomic instability and unregulated growth, with time leading to the neoplastic phenotype. Additional spontaneous mutations in growth regulatory genes of the labile DNA in these cells lead to the gradual development of a more malignant phenotype, eventually manifested in the malignant tumor.3

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

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